Navagrahas (the nine planets) source:

Within this Space highway , if one continuously observed , then it will be found that there are lumps of distant stars at regular distance in zodiac belt like cities on highways. These sign posts were named as constellation or as zodiac signs for identifying them like cities , as they shifted every month because of Earth’s revolution around Sun and came back to original position after a year .

Next observation was that some heavenly bodies shifted their place regularly within zodiac road , while distant stars bunch called constellation or zodiac sign did not make any change in their shape . So, moving bodies got more attention , which were called as planets . These too came back to their original place after some period .

Therefore , astronomers identified fixed distant stars bunch as background for the moving planets just like there are hands in clock against its dial background with 1 to 12 numbers .

After long observations , astronomers found that there are not many planets which move within zodiac belt. Apart from Sun and Moon , they found only Mercury , Venus , Mars , Jupiter and Saturn followed the 16 degree wide zodiac road like a 7 lane express high way . That made 7 planets from Sun to Saturn on which weekdays are named . They follow a fixed 16 degree path of zodiac and have different speed of revolution ( from 1 month to 30 years ) and are visible to naked eye .

Indian astronomers divided zodiac circular, clock like road into 27 equal parts based on Moon’s stay for a day under every star bunch ( Nakshatra or constellation) while Babylonians preferred 12 divisions ( Zodiac Signs) in which Sun stays for a Month .

For centuries , only 7 planets were used . Astronomers tried to co-relate planets motion in different signs / constellation and their effect on Earthy events like war , epidemics , crops yield , flood , earth quake , storms , rise and fall of empires, birth and death of humans etc and thus developed an applied science of Astrology . Babylonians and Indians were forerunners of this .

Long after , a need was felt , because of eclipse phenomenon happening at least 2 times in a year , that something is missing in 7 planet predictive model . They visualised that there must be something in sky that casts shadows on Sun and Moon during eclipse . And then they came up with theory of Rahu and Ketu or dragon’s head and tail which are shadows of Moon and Earth . Rahu and Ketu are nothing but a virtual way of including Earth in scheme of astrological model . And that made total 9 planets of astrology . Yash Shukla’s answer to Vedic Astrology: Why in astrology charts , Earth is not considered as planet and also not worshipped in Navgrah scheme ?

So, Rahu and Ketu are like decimal and zero added to number system later on for creating perfect model and that works accurately in astrology .

Later day astrologers added the features of planets and signs based on persons characteristics and visible characteristics of planets and thus whole astrology developed .

Mind it that Indian astrology does not consider Uranus , Neptune and Pluto as part of standard 9 navgraha , because their path of revolution falls out of zodiac . It is just like vehicles moving parallel but below express highway , which cannot affect vehicles moving on zodiac highway . Also, it is based on Geocentric model , where Earth is centre because we need to assess sum of effects on Earthy life and not on Sun .

That is the theory side of Navgraha but practice side has added lot of commercial crap like color , images , idols , stories etc to these Navgraha , which has no proof , though mathematical base does have its applications .


Śiśumāra (शिशुमार) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “estuarine crocodile”

Shishumara, aka: Śiśumāra; 3 Definition(s)


Shishumara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śiśumāra can be transliterated into English as Sisumara or Shishumara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Āyurveda (science of life)

Śiśumāra (शिशुमार) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “estuarine crocodile”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Śiśumāra is part of the sub-group named Vāriśaya, refering to animals “living in waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botanyŚiśumāra (शिशुमार)—Sanskrit word for an animal “porpoise” (dolphin) or “crocodile” (Planista gangetica). This animal is from the group called Pādin (‘those which have feet’). Pādin itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

(Source): Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Āyurveda book cover

context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of shishumara or sisumara in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India 


1a) Śiśumāra (शिशुमार).—A Prajāpati; father of Bhrami and father-in-law of Dhruva.*

1b) The form of the system of heavenly bodies supposed to be yoga power of Hari. At the end of the tail is Dhruva and on the tail are other gods like Indra, Agni, Kaśyapa; on its back lies the Ajavīthi and on the stomach the Ganges. Similarly all constellations and planets are seen on the different limbs of its body;1 described.2

1c) Is Tārāmaya; the eternal deity; Uttānapāda is the upper jaw, Yajña is the lower lip, Dharma is the head, heart is Nārāyaṇa, Sādhya and Aśvins front feet, Varuṇa and Aryama is the hind feet, the samvatsara, child; Mitra is Apāna; tail is Agni, Mahendra, Marīci and Kaśyapa and Dhruva; all the planets are centred in Dhruva.*

(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Purāṇa book cover

context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Relevant definitions

Search found 15 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Agni (अग्नि, “fire”) or Tejas refers to one of the five types of immobile beings (sthāvara), ac…
rahū (रहू).—m C More commonly rōha.— OR — rāhu (राहु).—m (S) The ascending node. 2 In mytho…
maghā (मघा).—f pl The tenth lunar mansion.— OR — māgha (माघ).—m The 11th month of the Hindu…
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) refers to the eighteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to …
rasātala (रसातल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—n The lowest of the seven divisions of pātāḷa. rasātaḷāsa jāṇēṃ Be …
abhijit (अभिजित्).—n Name of one of the nakṣatra.
Āśleṣā (आश्लेषा) refers to the ninth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mā…
1a) Aryaman (अर्यमन्).—An Āditya, and a son of Aditi: named Mātṛkā: sons were Caṣaṇis.1 …
bhramī (भ्रमी).—a Erratic. Straying.
1a) Vidhātri (विधात्रि).—A son of Khyātī and Bhṛgu, married Niyatī, (Āyatī, Vāyu-purāṇa) …
Aśvin (अश्विन्) is the Sanskrit name for a deity to be worshipped (aśvinau, “the two A…
Vāriśaya (वारिशय) is the Sanskrit name for a group of animals referring to “animals wh…
Ajavīthi (अजवीथि).—On the back of the Śiśumāra (s.v.)1 the southern course. Here are thr…
Śaiśumāracakra (शैशुमारचक्र).—The topmost region where Hari is the presiding deity—…
Auttānapāda (औत्तानपाद).—On the left cheek of Śiśumāra.** Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 102.

Relevant text

So its the constellation of Draco. It had the polestar in 3000BC, the time the pyramids where build.





Ursa minor

The constellation is believed to have been created by Thales of Miletus, a philosopher and astronomer who lived between 625 and 545 BC and was known as one of the Seven Sages of Greece (early 6th century philosophers known for their wisdom). Ursa minor hold the next polestar Polaris.

The polestar was also seen as a bird high up in the tree. Draco was thus a  feathered serpent” (Quetzalcoatl) and probably why dragons why revered so much in later ages. The phoenix and the dragon are respectively Ursa Minor and Draco fighting for the pearl of heaven, the polestar.

Draco is sometimes equated with Ladon, the snake who guarded the golden apples. however that might be Hydra instead, see below due to OVID.

It is unclear precisely which mythological dragon Draco represents. There are, however, three main contenders.

  • One version–the least likely–of the Draco story is that the dragon fought Minerva during the wars between the giants and the gods. Minerva threw Draco’s twisted body into the heavens before it had time to unwind itself.
  • Another possibility is that Draco represents the dragon who guarded the golden apples in the garden of the Hesperides. One of the labors of Hercules was to steal these apples (some sources state it was his eleventh labor, others it was his twelfth). This was, according to Bulfinch,

the most difficult labor of all…, for Hercules did not know where to find them. These were the apples which Juno had received at her wedding from the goddess of the Earth, and which she had entrusted to the keeping of the daughters of Hesperus, assisted by a watchful dragon. After various adventures, Hercules arrived at Mount Atlas in Africa. Atlas was one of the Titans who had warred against the gods, and after they were subdued, Atlas was condemned to bear on his shoulders the weight of the heavens. He was the father of the Hesperides, and Hercules thought might, if any one could, find the apples and bring them to him (Bulfinch’s Mythology, 136).

Hercules suggested this plan to Atlas, who pointed out two problems: first, he could not simply drop his burden; second, there was the awful guardian dragon. Hercules responded by throwing his spear into the garden of the Hesperides and killing the hundred-headed beast, and then taking the burden on his own shoulders. Atlas retrieved the apples and, reluctantly taking the burden onto his shoulders once again, gave them to Hercules. Juno placed the dragon in the heavens as a reward for his faithful service.

  • Ovid metamorphoses was written in 8 AD and tells the story of Cadmus. Cadmus was the brother of Europa, who was carried off to Crete by Jupiter in the form of a bull (Taurus). Cadmus was ordered by his father to go in search of his sister, and told he could not return unless he brought Europa back with him. “Cadmus wandered over the whole world: for who can lay hands on what Jove has stolen away? Driven to avoid his native country and his father’s wrath, he made a pilgrimage to Apollo’s oracle, and begged him to say what land he should dwell in” (Metamorphoses III 9-11).

Cadmus followed Apollo’s advice and found a suitable site for his new city. He sent his attendants to find fresh water to offer as a libation to Jupiter, and they wandered into a cave with springs. (NOTE: ordinairy water as libation, interesting..

As they were getting water, however, they were all killed by “the serpent of Mars, a creature with a wonderful golden crest; fire flashed from its eyes, its body was all puffed up from poison, and from its mouth, set with a triple row of teeth, flickered a three-forked tongue” (Metamorphoses III 31-34). After his companions did not return, Cadmus himself went into the cave and discovered the dragon. He killed it with his spear, and then (upon the order of Minerva) sowed the dragon’s teeth in the ground. From the teeth sprung warriors, who battled each other until only five were left. These five, along with Cadmus himself, were the first people of the city of Thebes.

It is interesting, however, to note that Ovid himself does not equate the dragon of Mars with Draco. In fact, in book III of Metamorphoses, he describes the dragon killed by Cadmus in terms of the constellation: “It was as huge as the Serpent that twines between the two Bears in the sky, if its full length were seen uncoiled” (45-47).

Therefor, Hercules serpent and all other serpents killed by Hero’s might thus be the Hydra serpent instead and NOT Draco. The oldest extant Hydra narrative appears in Hesiod’s Theogony, 8th – 7th century BC, while the oldest images of the monster are found on a pair of bronze fibulae dating to c. 700 BCE. In both these sources, the main motifs of the Hydra myth are already present: a multi-headed serpent that is slain by Heracles and Iolaus.

This is however questionable as the origin of this story might come from sumeria.

Neo-Assyrian cylinder seal impression from the eighth century BC identified by several sources as a possible depiction of the slaying of Tiamat from the Enûma Eliš[1][2]

Apolo vs Python

In another Greek myth, Zeus is said to have released two eagles at opposite ends of the world, and commanded them to fly across the earth to meet at its centre. It was at Delphi that the two eagles finally met, and Zeus placed the stone under the glens of Mount Parnassus as a sign to humanity

Image 1: Apollo and Artemis offering a libation over the Delphic omphalos. Marble. Votive relief.


Image 2: Ompahlos from delphi



Image 3: Coin With Image of Apollo Setting on the Omphalos Stone at Delphi (Note the net covering the stone.


. As this stone is placed at the center of the earth, it was called the omphalos stone, the meaning of omphalos being ‘navel’. A later legend states that the god Apollo slayed the great serpent Python so that he could establish his oracular temple at Delphi, and that the omphalos marked the exact spot where he slayed Python. This myth may sometimes be found on ancient coins which depict an omphalos stone with a serpent wound around it.

Although the omphalos stone at Delphi is the most famous of its kind, it is by far not the only one. Another omphalos associated with both Apollo and divination is the omphalos found at Kerameikos, northwest of Athens’ acropolis. In 2012, archaeologists were cleaning the stone when they discovered that it was actually a fancy lid covering a well. The stone was mounted on a slab of marble, so archaeologsits moved it. They discovered that the well’s walls were covered in 20 repetitions of the same ancient Greek inscription: “ΕΛΘΕ ΜΟΙ Ω ΠΑΙΑΝ ΦΕΡΩΝ ΤΟ ΜΑΝΤEΙΟΝ ΑΛΗΘΕΣ” (“Come to me, O Paean, and bring with you the true oracle”). Paean here refers to Apollo. In 2016 it was reported that the well was likely used in hydromancy (divination with water).

Omphalos stones have also been found at sites such as Thebes and Karnak in Egypt and in buildings of the Vinca culture in Southeastern Europe. Yet, these stones probably functioned differently from the Delphic omphalos stone. For instance, many buildings of the Vinca culture contained an omphalos stone, indicating that they may have held some ritual significance to the people of that ancient culture.

Another type of omphalos stone is the baetyl, which were sacred stones found in various places in the ancient Levant. Rather than marking the center of the earth, baetyls were more closely associated with the divine. It is unclear, however, whether the baetyls were themselves objects of worship or aniconic symbols of divine presence. The word baetyl may have originated in the Punic ‘betel’ or Semitic ‘bethel’, both meaning ‘house of god’. According to some ancient authors, these baetyls were believed to be meteorites. One of the most well-known baetyls in the ancient world was the baetyl of Emesa. During the reign of the notorious Elagabalus, the baetyl of Emesa, which was a black stone sacred to the god Elah-Gabal, was brought to Rome and installed as the head of the Roman pantheon. Prior to becoming emperor, Elagabalus was a priest of Elah-Gabal, hence his decision to elevate the status of the god he served. On coins, the stone is shown to be smooth, and an eagle is sometimes shown in front of or on top of the stone. Coins from Ealagabalus’ reign also show the baetyl in ceremonial procession, perhaps depicting the sacred stone’s entry into Rome.

This ancient greek custom of libation on an oumphalos (meaning navel, but phallus is also male organ) is not much different from indian libation custom on a lingam, in fact, very similar.

First Picture: Greek, Libation of Artemis and Apollo at omphalos. Red-figure lekythos by the Master of Shuvalov (?), ca. 440 BC.. Apollo pouring a libation from a phiale onto the omphalos, with his sister Artemis attending; a bucranium hangs above.

Second Picture: Lingam Libation


The Pyramids shafts.

Khufu’s burial chamber was allegedly fashioned deep inside the Great Pyramid. Two skinny shafts bore outward from the chamber. For decades, scholars thought they were airshafts. But in the 1960s, astronomers found that they have an astronomical purpose.

An interesting correlation is the great pyramid, who, points at the orion constellation,  Hercules and also at Draco the polestar constellation, marking the importance of both. (The hero and the dragon)

Ursa major

The seven Rishis / Sages
According to the epic Mahabharata, composed in about 500 B.C., the stars of the Big Dipper were the seven sages called Rishis. These seven sages
are said to be those who made the Sun rise and shine. (as stars revolved around polestar in draco, Thuban)


vishnu parana book 2 chapter 8



Can someone help me with the gaps I need to identify in this text.

The sacred Hindu text Shatpatha Brhamana mentions an idea of a mythical planetary system called Shishumara. It is described as “having its head downward and its body coiled.

  • On the end of its tail is the planet of Dhruva [1]
  • On the body of its tail are the planets of demigods Prajapati [2], Agni [3], Indra [4] and Dharma, [5]
  • At the base of its tail are the planets of the demigods Dhata [6] and Vidhata.[7]
  • Where the hips might be on the Shishumara are the seven saintly sages [8] like Vasinora and Aigira.
  • The coiled body of the Shishumar-cakra turns toward its right side, on which the fourteen constellations from Abhijit to Punarvasu [9] are located. On its left side are the fourteen stars from Punya to Uttaranoaha. [10] Thus its body is balanced because its sides are occupied by an equal number of stars.
  • On the back of the Shishumara is a group of stars known as the Ajavethi [11]
  • On its abdomen is the Ganges [12] that flows into the sky


Explanation of the names:

[ 1.] Polestar at Draco, Thuban

[2 Uranus – source:]

[3] ?

[4] ?

[5] ?

[6] ?

[7] ?

[8] Ursa Minor

[9]  14 of 28 lunarmansion

[10] Other side 14 lunar mansions

[11] Ajavīthi (अजवीथि).—On the back of the Śiśumāra (s.v.)1 the southern course.  (southern constellations?) Here are three kinds of sunrise, one in mūla and the other two in two āṣāḍhas; on its south was pitṛyāna consists of three constellations—mūla and āṣāḍhas—pūrva and uttara.2

[12 Milkyway



In Hinduism

Āyurveda (science of life)

Śiśumāra (शिशुमार) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “estuarine crocodile”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature.

The animal Śiśumāra is part of the sub-group named Vāriśaya, refering to animals “living in waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śiśumāra (शिशुमार)—Sanskrit word for an animal “porpoise” (dolphin) or “crocodile” (Planista gangetica). This animal is from the group called Pādin (‘those which have feet’).

Pādin itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).


Draco, depicted as a snake, was actualy a crocodile in an ancient times and also so in sumerian times. The polestar was a bird, hence the bird/crocodile symbolism as seen in Sobek/Horus.

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