Dolomite (Ca,Mg)(CO3)2 is another commonly encountered carbonate mineral. If you place one drop of cold hydrochloric acid on a piece of dolomite the reaction is weak or not observed. Instead of seeing an obvious fizz, you will see a drop of acid on the surface of the mineral that might have a few bubbles of carbon dioxide gas slowly growing on the dolomite surface.
However, if warm acid is placed on dolomite an obvious fizz will occur. This occurs because the acid and rock react more vigorously at higher temperatures.

Stone softening

Legends also tell of how the edges of the stones would be rubbed with the juice of a special plant which would soften the stone like clay and thus perfect the joint. To think that simply because we have not yet located the small crimson plant Fawcett spoke of in the myriad of unknown species that have yet to be discovered in the Amazon jungle certainly does not mean that such a plant does not exist. To rule something out completely because it has been found yet would be nothing short of foolhardy, with such an attitude we would never have
discovered electricity, that’s a given. One of the more unfortunate things in the dilemma though, is that time is fast running out. We
may now never find any such plant. Not now that the main Amazon basin has been ruined by American oil interests and the remaining forests are still being destroyed at the rate of at least 3 football fields a day. It’s almost like they’re trying to make sure all evidence of such a thing is destroyed. But then, one should never attribute an action to malice when it can be adequately explained by stupidity. Though, when one is considering the actions, motives and attitudes of
modern governments, unfortunately it’s usually the former. Such a plant may have already become a victim of industry, lost forever in the technological crunch.

Paleomagnetism Research suggests great pyramid stones are cast.

A study indicates that the great pyramids stones where cast based on paleomagnetism research:

Imhotep formula to make limestone blocks




Image result

From the reviews:”This new encyclopedia focuses mainly on the magnetic field of internal origin; however, some related articles on external sources are included. The editor’s goal is to cover the subject in fine detail at a level understandable to anyone with a general scientific education. The work includes 318 alphabetically arranged entries written by 226 specialists in the field. Each entry has a short bibliography and cross-references. 
 Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-level undergraduates through professionals/practitioners.” (L. Joseph, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (6), 2008)”This new Encyclopedia 
 present universal knowledge in the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in the broadest sense and in a single volume. 
 Written at a level accessible to anyone with a scientific education, this authoritative and speedy reference is 
 to all whose activities or studies are concerned with both fields. It is therefore a valuable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for physicists, geologists, geographers, atmospheric and environmental scientists and engineers.” (Jozef Hus and Jean-Claude Jodogne, Physicalia Magazine, Vol. 30 (1), 2008)”The Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism is part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. 
 Numerous diagrams, pictures, tables, formulas, and mathematical equations provide clarity to the discussions. A detailed 44-page subject index and a series of color plates, mostly magnetic field maps, appear at the end of the volume. 
 this encyclopedia will be of particular interest to students and professionals in the earth sciences. This work is recommended for college, university, and larger public libraries.” (Ignacio J. Ferrer-Vinent, ARBAonline, Vol. 39, 2008)”This is major work whose aim is to provide a comprehensive review of all aspects of geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism as the subjects are currently understood. 
 the articles are well illustrated, well written and comprehensible to the reader. 
 I do believe that it is an indispensible library tool for graduates, academics and professionals alike involved in the application or study of geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism. For those already involved in a particular aspect of this broad discipline it provides a useful pathway to allied subjects.” (Graeme Taylor, Geological Magazine, Vol. 145 (3), 2008)”This volume claims to be the first single encyclopaedia to cover the combined fields of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism. 
 aims to provide a comprehensive and authoritative coverage of these complex and ever expanding subjects. 
 A very useful list of cross-references is provided at the end of each article, which makes it much easier to link together areas that are less familiar. 
 In the main this book is for those specialising in geophysics 
 . vital for academic libraries with geology and geophysics departments.” (Helen Ashton, Reference Reviews, Vol. 22 (3), 2008)

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

Image result for Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock: The Role of Fluids in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Processes Author: Harlov, Daniel E./ Austrheim, Hakon

Title: Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock: The Role of Fluids in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Processes
Author: Harlov, Daniel E./ Austrheim, Hakon

Publisher: Springer Verlag
Publication Date: Aug-15-2012
Pages: 812
Binding: Hardcover
Edition: 2013
Dimensions: 6.00 (W) x 9.00 (H) x 2.00 (D)
ISBN: 3642283934
Subject: Science / Earth Sciences / Mineralogy

Description: Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle. — Springer Publishing

This book examines how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle. — Springer Publishing


Roman Cement and Pozzolans

Roman Cement dome of the Pantheon (interior)

Original post by Patrick Webb


“There is also a kind of powder which from natural causes produces astonishing results. It is found in the neighbourhood of Baiae and in the country belonging to the towns round about Mt. Vesuvius. This substance, when mixed with lime and rubble, not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, but even when piers of it are constructed in the sea, they set hard under water.” – Vitruvius; The Ten Books of Architecture, Book II, Chapter 6 Pozzolana

The secret of Roman Cement was the mixing of lime with pozzolana, called harena fossicia or “pit sand” by Vitruvius. Pozzolana was distinguished from river and sea sands (the common harena) and receives this contemporary name from the town of Pozzuoli (Roman Puteoli, neighboring Baiae) in the Bay of Naples just 25 miles east of Mount Vesuvius. The entire region is heavily covered with meters thick beds of pozzolana, volcanic pumice and ash from previous eruptions.

In addition to Pozzuoli, Vitruvius mentions deposits of pit sand at Mount Aetna and there is evidence indicating the Roman exploitation of German trass, a sedimentary stone of lightly compacted volcanic ash having similar properties. Although the Romans typically are credited with inventing pozzolana based cement, there is archeological evidence that the Greeks were using their own pozzolana from the eruption at Thera (Santorini) for water cisterns as early as 600 B.C. as well as for methods of wall construction only later adopted by the Romans.

Roman Cement

The volcanic ash constituting pozzolana is high in amorphous silica and also contains finely constituted alumina. “Amorphous” literally means “without form.” Under most natural conditions silica organizes itself into a highly stable, non-reactive, crystalline state such as sand or quartz. However, with the explosive debris of certain volcanic eruptions, the disorganized molten silica is finely dispersed in the atmosphere where it rapidly cools before having time to crystallize, precipitating as a fine ash. This ash is relatively inert by itself or even in the presence of water. However, blended with lime the resulting mortar is “awakens” as a Roman Cement sharing many of the properties and specifications of the Natural Cement considered in our previous article.

Patrick Webb

Aqua Claudia

Roman Cement was used for exterior stucco, plastering water cisterns, the mortar of aqueducts, and even for casting the greatest unreinforced dome in human history: the Pantheon. The very same sources of pozzolana from Vesuvius, Aetna, Santorini and German trass are all still mined and used in similar ways today.

Other Pozzolans

The term “pozzolans” has extended to man-made aggregates and powders that have a similar hydraulic effect when blended with lime. Pliny the Elder indicated one used extensively by the Romans over two thousand years ago:

“There are three kinds of sand. Sand which has been quarried (pozzolana) requires one-fourth its weight of lime, while river sand or sea sand requires one third. If one third of pounded earthen ware is also added, the mortar will be improved.”

The improvement he referred to was the moderate hydraulic action imparted by finely ground burnt terra cotta which has been used for millennia by the Minoans, Greeks, Romans, Indians (surkhi) and Egyptians (homra). In the Veneto it is called “cocciopesto,” quite literally referring to “baked and crushed” terra cotta. Cocciopesto lime has been traditionally used for stucco as well as plaster floors in Venice and imparts a superior resistance to the relentless attack of salts in the brackish water of the Venetian lagoon. Similar to the previously considered Natural Hydraulic Lime mortars, these lime plasters with ground terra cotta or brick crushed to powder are not as impermeable or brittle as Roman Cements and are very useful for plaster and stucco applications.

Today, many other pozzolans have been discovered, many of them being waste products of industry including: Pulverized Fuel Ash from coal fired power stations, Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag from steel production, Silica Fume from electric arc furnaces and Rice Hull Ash as a byproduct of agricultural production. All of these have slightly varied but related properties, reacting with lime to produce mortars resembling traditional Roman Cement.

That concludes our consideration of the lime family and thus all of the traditional plaster binders. Until we’ve been looking at each binder individually. However, many of these binders play nicely with each other (and a couple don’t). In our next article we’ll mix things up and see some interesting possibilities available from mixing plaster binders.