The universal religion of the world

The writer Richard Cassaro ( was right in identifying the rockefeller building with his cathedral tryptich doors, as a direct influence from churches and other cultures and its clear masonic influence and meaning as he apparently pointed out in his book, “Written in stone”, (which to date I haven’t read).

From his webpage and his online collage images can be seen that he has made clear visual links between ancient cultures and modern Christianity and Freemasonry. It were the freemasons who build the churches for the Christian church, clearly incorporating symbolism and older ancient knowledge in symbolic representations in those structures.

In this modern age, the mega churches stadiums are nothing compared to the cathedrals of europe and a diluted , bastardized version of “faith”.

Falsely represented fairytales of what once was real knowledge of time astronomy itself by priests (magi) who took this knowledge and sold the story of god to the people for power and control and deceived mankind as such. Today this is seen in the materialistic wealth of the megachurches pastors, which is far from the poor jezus who gave itself for humanity. Abuse of donations for personal gain.

The cross layout of the churches is astronomy representing the ecliptic path of the sun and its symbolical death every winter and its resurrection in easter.

When making the rockefeller connection to this ancient symbolism, Richard forgot to look at the top of the Rockefeller building where his so called “god self icon” or “staf god”  as outlined in his second eBook “The missing link” is also clearly visible. Although not know to him, this does proof his initial identifications of global similarities as now two images are seen in tandem in 1 building. Just as the freemasons lodge has the 3 chairs and the 2 pillars opposite of each other.

His theory, is that he links this “staff god” to the Yoga nadis and kundalini third eye awakening. Further also pointing out third eye symbolism in the America’s.

Although this might be a possibility,  I suspect a dual meaning of symbolism (as above as below, the micro and macro cosmos) as seen also in the jewish Kaballa, this has a clear astronomical and time/seasons meaning to it.

The rockefeller skyscraper is “the modern pyramid”, a representation of the milkyway.
The priest on top of the temple changed for the rich and the executives of the world in their penthouses.

It is no coincidence that Prometheus is seen in front of the rockefeller building with a band of constellations. Prometheus is the later Hercules, but also Osiris, the green man, the maize god and many others. He is the constellation of Orion, the 3 (!)belt stars. Why? Because he was the spring constellation back in the day together with Taurus, while LEO and virgo ruled mid summer. In our age, Taurus rules mid summer and aquarius is present in spring, in the northern hemisphere that is, it was Ophiucius who rules spring in the southern hemisphere. Ophiucius used to carry two snakes, caleb and kaput and this is where I don’t agree with Richard Cassaro.

Ophiucus is 180 degree of Orion. Just like prometheus is seen here on the opposite side of the building. (up down). The skyscraper is effectively the milkyway, the universe, carrying its fruits.

To me ophiucius is this is the origin of the “staf god” not a god self icon. (Another possibility is that the staf god is god/the universe itself, the tree of life.) Its the same figure as Samson in the bible who “pulled down the pillars of the temple” just symbolic for the changing of the constellations in the sky. (The twintowers where also two pillars which transformed into 1 building sorting the Jewish star of two inverted triangles)

Below we see how the same symbolism was used her on election of the new pope. The triptych chairs, the god and the tree with its branches.

Pope Francis I is flanked by cardinals and Swiss Guards as he sits under a wooden sculpture in the Paul VI general audience hall during an audience for members of the media, at the Vatican March 16, 2013. REUTERS/Paul Hanna (VATICAN – Tags: RELIGION)

The masonic lodge as a miniature “solomons temple”.

Image result for freemason chair

A classic lodge, two pillars, 3 chairs. This specific symbolism of meaningfull lodge layout is dwindling, just like now any building is used as a “church” (and missing the cross layout, the tryptich and two towers as Boaz and Jachin pillars)  and if not for this book, being lost in time. Not any place can be a church or lodge. Clear symbolism and rules for its construction needs to be adhered to to convey and carry on the message.

There was a reason for the specific church and lodge layouts and Leonardo da vinci’s composition of the last supper, in my opinion this was because of astronomy.

I even dare to say that like the church, not many modern masons know why they do the 33 degrees, (the sun has a 33 year solar cycle.) or why they circumbate the lodge. They merely focus on executing the rituals whilst its meaning have been lost in time. One see an erosion of knowledge happening to the true meaning of cross layout churches. and the specific layout of lodges and such temples and its origins in the astronomical meanings of such buildings.

11 apostels and Maria. (because she is the only virgo/female in our zodiac) The original EVE while Adam was Orion. The tree of life in the garden of eden is related to the cosmological world tree.

Them “eating from the tree” deceived by the snake hydra, caused the skies to move in the seasons and show less stars (a certain section of the sky has less stars whilst turning) This was then related to the winter season and “god” banishing them from the lush green of spring and summer.

The 4 main apostels and their animals are the specific 4 corners of the zodiac. (the eagle is scorpio/aquila, the eagle of Zeus, the staff stormgod ophiucius carrying its two thunderbolts, or as in the old days two snakes, caleb and kaput)

As a bottom (or top) of the constellation circle, orion on the other side, he is realy “carrying” or just the two sides of the zodiac (milky way) as represented by the two snakes crawling down from pyramids as well.

Its note worthy that in ancient days, the universe was “the great mother” before it became “god our father”. Hence we see the minoan snake godess as the universe. Note the bar breast as isis. The change of society from matriarchal to patriarchal dominated created a shift in the naming the universe or god male from an earlier female universal womb.

She was the virgin and the gorgon who “gave birth” to life and creation without conception.

But she was also the gorgon, the monster (with the snake hair) who takes life when creation dies of.

So people went to church, to the cross for the holy union between man and women and to celebrate new life and mourn the death.

Was the staff gods or main god, merely a far simpeler less deep meaning and a relation to the stormy season and the constellation ophiucius, his eagle next to him aquila, revered as the god of rains (chaac), the return of the fertility of the land.

All these storm gods symbolic battled serpents, Hydra or Draco. So the storm god with his two lightning bolts serpents battling the monster later became Ophucius battling one serpent in the sky, just like the myths.

So many cultures had a storm god as their main god (Indra, Marduk, Zeus, Thor, Viracocha etc) as outlined in my Makara paper that that has an astronomical reference.

Krishna overcomes Kaliya

Vishnu vs seshet
Indra Vrtra
Tarhunt and the dragon Illuyanka
George and the dragon
Ba`al and Yam
Apep vs Ra  Egypt
Set vs Osiris  Egypt
Sobek vs Horus  Egypt (Horus under the form of a horseman piercing a croco-
dile with his spear.)
Typhon vs Zeus  Greek
Jörmungandr’s vs Thor  Nors
Tiamat vs Marduk or Bel  Sumerian
Typhon vs Zeus  Greek
Indra vs Vritra  Indian
Têmtum vs Hadad  Syria
Lôtān vs Baʿal  Canaanite
Levithian vs Jaweh  Hebrew
Hydra vs Hercules  Greek
Dragon vs St. George  Europe
Imdugud vs Ninurta  Sumeria
Illuyanka vs Tarhunt  Hittite

The Nazi’s, highly occultly schooled, took the symbol of the eagle (Horus), the swastika (revolving universe) and the double lightning bolt (zeus storm bolts) for their SS.

These lightning bolts weapons turned into the Dorjes of eastern Budhism. Note specifically how this sumerian version, has two front legs, Just like the Indian and Sumerian Makara as pointed out in my research paper.

The snake later turned into a dragon/lion composite animals purely because leo is above Hydra. (water)

Jaweh battled the serpent, the later devil.

This turned into the St. george and the dragon symbolism.

As outlined in my Makara research paper, the symbolism of Horus-Sobek as opposites in the zodiac, transformed into the St. george and the dragon stories.

One of the two pillars (!)  carrying St. George,entering  Piazza San Marco in venice.

For that symbolism I would refer you to my Makara research:

Hercules/orion/prometheus was the model of the torchbearer the collusus of rhodes. The torchbearer gets explained here:

The olympics, the torch bearer, the kurds celebrating newros, all comes from this. Even the collosus of rhodes and statue of liberty is related although the statue of liberty might be Virgo with her weatstalk touching the ecliptic becoming a torch.

The light and darkness, the sun and the moon and the central equilibrium or sunrise and dawn, which in our seasons is spring and autumn, and equal division of the day in light and darkness. Balance. In modern culture movies like starwars, the balance of “the force”. The ying and yang in other cultures.

Yet what is the real teaching is that man IS god and not seperated from it. We are not separate from the universe, yet a part of it as creator and created in 1.

No man better than any other yet all part of creation/preservation/destruction itself. The 3 yunas, of 3 representations of gods in Hinduism.

The sun king or ruler as representation of god himself on earth.

Image result for kabbalah man

This particular symbolism is very old indeed and goes back all the way to ancient Egypt from where it transvered the world in the form of the world tree or tree of life, equating creation and fertility of the lands with a tree and its fruits. The Milkyway with its stars as fruits and the polestar in top as highest most northern point of direction in the sky.

The Christmas tree.

The christmass tree is a direct link to the tree of life, a representation of the milkyway, with the polestar on top, but, also has links to kabalistic meanings and the chakras in other cultures. Enlightenment to be obtained via specific Yogic practices.

Image result for kabbalah man


Image result for kabbalah man

Thus time is the revolving sky of consteallations and the ever changing and continuous cycle of Birth and Death of nature and the universe around us.

The concept of time and god is identified as the universal force that keeps recreating itself and also “eats its own children” depicted as a monster in mayan art, hindu temples, a dragon that devours its own tail, kronos that east its own children(creation) time itself.

This astronomy was captured in temple buildings and later masonic halls, where the master of the lodge occupied the central chair. (or central door) the door of the sun itself on equinox.  Mason circumbating the lodge, as the sun themselves through the seasons. The blazing star the polestar.

It has allways been a duality of opposites. The constellation ophiucius, which in ancient days held two snakes, just like viracocha and the constellation of orion, the 3 belt stars, which symbolized the spring equinox. Hercules with his club is promotheus with his torch as the sun passes on its tip on the ecliptic making it a torch, stealing “the light/fire” from the gods.

The pillars of freemasonry, the church towers, are a direct link to the temple architecture of ancient and later Egypt, for example seen in the temple of dendur in the metropolitan museum of art in New York.

And ofcourse the later cathedrals.

On some cathedals and churches, one can clearly see the massive rosette  window in the middle.

Here a difference is made in the towers, a male female force, moon, sun tower.



And in some cathedrals Maria is the central figure with jezus.

The fact that marriage, birth and death was “celebrated” in church, is a further confirmation of it being a symbol of life and the universe itself. Jezus path passed the 12 apostels is a direct link to the path of the sun in the sky through the year.

So the church rebuild the astronomical religion of the ancient cultures, like Egypt and mythraism and moulded that into christianity. That was direct plagiarism of older concepts and allegories, they just changed the figures names. The christian church from Isis and Horus. (Josef/Maria-Jezus = Osiris/Isis-Horus). In ancient days the great mother was worshipped, the universe. The sun is “her son”

Horus the hawk god. Isis side of the pillars, Osiris the other, child,  The holy trinity.

Image result for isis horus

The rosette (rose)

Of isis or seen on sumerian wrist, the fertility of the land or the great mother.

Rose window

The rose window with the 12 apostels or 12 constellations.

The path of the sun is the ecliptic. That is represented by the horizontal cross bar of the church. Jezus, the sun, dies every year and gets resurected, after being put “into a cave” The area below the horizon.

So, the basis of the christian church is a solar religion, where time itself, the universe or creation itself is worshipped in an allegorical matter taken from many ancient cultures before them.

Thats why the Mayas thought their gods returned as they carried the same “cross” symbolism as seen in the temple of the cross in palenque. Yet their knowledge came from the west, not the east as seen in the makkara symbolism highlighted in my other research.

Isis breast, her nipple in a rose, the “lady of the rose” Sounds familiar?

Look closeley on the rockefeller buildings top and also there we find this symbol of the “fertility rose” related to the sun itself on equinoxes.


Now these towers and the old symbolism of the two mountains wih the sun in the middle is very old and is in my opinion related to this below.



Why? This becomes clear in this video. Its related to time itself and the annual path of the sun. (who dies every year on the cross of the ecliptic)

Not only was this the basis for Egyptian temples, christian churches etc. etc. but also for hindu temples where this similar astronomy is clearly depicted. This is the basis for the triptych doors and the god in the middle door symbolism wether its buddha, the sun god viracocha, jesus or other.

We not only see this in egypt but also in Cambodia. (note the 3 tower symbolism like the 3 doors)

The tryptich and the sungod as such can be seen all the way back in gate of the sun in Tiwanaku in viracocha and at the back the 3 doors symbolism. Note also the indentations forming together a triangle.

This further becomes clear at the rear where the tryptich symbolism is clearly visible. This is exactly the same symbolism we find back in the rockefeller building but also in masonic lodges with the 3 chairs and the two pillars on the opposite side.

In a later version in Leonardo da vinci’s painting.

6 apostels on the left side, 6 on the right side (12 constellations and the central universe with the sun (solar) in front wearing the red and the blue garment. (colour symbolism as seen in many flags of US, russiam, netherlands, france etc etc)

There is no difference to the gate of the sun and this painting.

So one can see this astronomical “religion” has travelled the world under different names. The hindu temples of the east are no different to the european cathedrals, egyptian temples or the jewish temple of king solomon in symbolism and meaning.

The message and concept of god, the universe as creator, preserver and destroyer just expressed in a different way and if by that, we are all talking about the same, creation itself, why should one fight one other to make their religion the main religion?

One should perhaps strive to unify these beliefs into a new “religion” and educate the world on the origins and true meanings of these cultural expressions of pyramids, temples and churches, as all of these are based on this knowledge of astronomy and time itself yet sold to the people in vague veiled stories only top be understood by a select few at this stage.


The Tree of Life

Pillar, Tree of life, the Great godess, (snake)Godess holding snakes flanked by lions = Universe.
Cypriot cornelian scarab seal with two lions before the Sumerian sacred tree under the winged sun disc. The British Museum.

The jewish menora is the “tree of life” symbol.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE – 2000 BCE); Tree of life with goats.; c. 3000 BCE; Sculpture; Earthenware; Chicago. Oriental Institute Museum.
3,000 BCE Sumerian Stamp Seal with Impression Tree of Life with Rampant Goats. Earthenware.
Zeus, Perseus, Persephone deyus
Sky father / Earth Mother
The PERSians definately have something to do with it. I made the following relations the other day. PERSeus (son of Zeus) the legendary founder of Mycenea and PERSephone(daughter of Zeus). PERSeus mother was DANae. It might have been a marriage between the tribe of DAN and the Persians that founded mycenean civilization.

Assyrian conquest and demise

As part of the Kingdom of Israel, the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.

AN ART NOUVEAU ROYAL DUX BISQUE PORCELAIN FIGURE modelled as a naked maiden standing on the back of a tortoise, pink patch mark, model 2928, 10″ high There are numerous versions of this same depiction.
Its the goddess or pillar (milkyway) on the back of the turtle (earth)
(Depicted in hinduism as the churning of the milky ocean on the back of the turtle.)
Flanked by lions / holding entwined snakes -> male/female -> creation/fertility
This “8,000-year-old frog-like swastika” (as described by original poster on archeology Bulgaria page to which I don’t agree) made of nephrite has been discovered during the latest archaeological excavations of the Slatina Neolithic Settlement in Bulgaria’s capital Sofia. Kek — at National Archaeological Museum.
– Its actualy 4 serpents, dragons. Closely related to this 2nd picture from sweden.
Third picture, also from Archeology Bulgaria page, Silver appliqués, composed of a triskele of cat-like creatures around a central bindu/solar symbol, from the Thracian chariot burial at Mezek (Haskovo reg.) in southern Bulgaria
(3rd c. BC)
This “8,000-year-old frog-like swastika” (as described by original poster on archeology Bulgaria page to which I don’t agree) made of nephrite has been discovered during the latest archaeological excavations of the Slatina Neolithic Settlement in Bulgaria’s capital Sofia. Kek — at National Archaeological Museum.
– Its actualy 4 serpents, dragons. Closely related to this 2nd picture from sweden.
Third picture, also from Archeology Bulgaria page, Silver appliqués, composed of a triskele of cat-like creatures around a central bindu/solar symbol, from the Thracian chariot burial at Mezek (Haskovo reg.) in southern Bulgaria
(3rd c. BC)
The twirling triskele or swastika is the universe rotating around the polestar. The 3 forces of nature mostly create, preserve and destroy,
The Indus Valley: Mohenjo-daro, Harappa – molded tablet showing a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. A single Indus script depicting a spoked wheel is above the head of the deity
An archaic Medusa wearing the belt of the intertwined snakes, as depicted on the west pediment of the Artemis Temple in Corfu, exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu


Clear relation to Medusa in South american art –>

The “sunstone” might actualy be a “moonstone” which makes more sense since they had a 13 moon calender and not a sun calender.

Coatlicue (Aztec)
The Great Goddess Coatlicue, mother of all the Aztec deities, had many great temples built in her honor and was revered at altars of volcanic glass. She was the Lady of the Serpent Skirt, living on a high mountain peak over the lost homeland of Aztlan, while her snakes dwelt below in sacred caves. It was Coatlicue who gave all in life and reclaimed all in death. Her necklace of skulls reminded the Aztecs that each must return to her in their time. Someday, all must melt into her lava pools, watching their future lives revealed in mirrors of cool obsidian. (The Aztec Calendar Stone was carved from solidified lava in the late 15th century.)
This goddess of the double snake head had 400 sons whom she set in the sky as stars known as the Centzonhuitznahua, and one daughter, the goddess Coyolxanliqui (little bells).
When Coatlicue was sweeping one day, a tuft of feathers fell on her. Hesitating to interrupt her ritual, she tucked the tuft into her waistband and kept sweeping. However, when in her leisure she tried to examine the feathers, she found that they had vanished, leaving her pregnant. “What have you done?” Coyolxanliqui demanded, indignant at her mother’s apparent sexual transgression. “Affairs at your age? Have you no shame for the family honor, for your adult children! Who is this lover?”
But Coatlicue had no answer.
Infuriated, Coyolxanliqui sought out her 400 brothers, and incited them to matricide. “Her new children will supplant us, her behavior will shame us,” she warned. “This new child will be set above us in the sky. Killing her is our only option.”
Her brothers were persuaded, all except the youngest. He hid away, and
As the other children plotted, he went to warn his mother. For, he reasoned, if the newest had to perish, the second youngest might be threatened as well, as the older siblings claimed all the inheritance.
The children attacked just as their divine mother was giving birth, when she might be at her weakest. However, forewarned, Coatlicue birthed the divine Huitzilopochtli (“He-who-was-born-on-the-shield”), who emerged fully armed and armored “holding a spear and a blue rod, his face painted, his left leg slender and feathered, his arms and thighs painted blue.”1 Only seconds old, he slaughtered all of his brothers who had plotted to kill his divine mother. Stabbing one after the other with his obsidian knife, he finally reached Coy-olxanliqui, and decapitated her.
When Coatlicue witnessed the death of her cherished daughter, she of the golden bells, she was inconsolable. After weeping for many days, she took the shining head of her daughter and set it in the sky, in a place of honor, where it became the moon.2
Here the daughter is attempting destruction of the mother for usurping her position (“I’m supposed to be the fertile one! Why are you sleeping around, bearing children? At your age!”). Coatlicue slays her — not with direct combat, but by the woman’s life-giving power of birthing the hero. Forced to battle her own children, she represents the conflict of the devouring mother.
To complicate the legend even more, for the glorious sun god Huit-zilopochtli to be born, his mother must die. In some legends Coatlicue perishes, while in far more she and her daughter are represented as two sides of the same entity. Destroying her daughter, she divides herself. Here is the truth of the struggle: These two warring goddesses are the same person.
As the patriarchy rejected the Mother Goddess, everything changed. The goddess of all things was demonized, split into sainted virgin and vilified sinner or even death crone. Both lost power, as one was lauded for its weakened state, the other defiled. The Virgin Mary was divine, Mary Magdalene a sinner. Eve was the passive victim, Lilith the vicious child-killer. The Egyptian cat-goddess Bast represented love and fertility, while her lioness counterpart Sekhmet was wrath personified. Persephone was sweet flower maiden, Hecate cackling death-crone. Kali split off from the kindlier Indian goddesses Durga or Parvati as the personification of their wrath. And Coatlicue’s daughter rebelled against her sensual, powerful mother.
The virgin goddesses were thrust up into the heavens, and the death goddesses, down to the underworld. The goddess’s darker aspects became the demonic: Baba Yaga, the Morrigan, Hel, Hecate, Kali, the Furies, Nemesis, Troma, Mara, Morgan le Fay. She became the wicked witch, mistress of dark spells, lurking in shadow. Thus the cycle of life-death-life was shattered, as the patriarchy believed in clinging to light and life rather than succumbing to death. The dark goddess was only seen as bloodthirsty, engulfing all to fuel her hunger.
It was the Dark Moon Crone Goddess who took life back into her womb, but the ancients also understood that a New Moon Virgin Goddess would birth life back out again. The Crone was the death-giver as the Virgin was the birth-bringer. Reincarnation was represented by the refertilization of the Crone who became Virgin. The continual interaction of destruction becoming creation is the eternal dance that maintains the cosmos.3
However, her cycle shattered, leaving only the wicked witch who brought permanent destruction in her wake, the monstrous villainess who must be punished at the story’s end. This schism caused a great fear of death, which was no longer accompanied by resurrection and rebirth.
In this way, the goddess Cihuacoatl personified the Aztec collective hunger for human sacrifice; scholars call her “not so much a woman as the representation of the negative side of the female psyche.”4
Cihuacoatl was depicted with her lower face made only of bone and her jaws wide open waiting for victims. Her hair was long and stringy and a pair of knives formed a diadem on her forehead. She was related to evil omens, was savage, and brought misery to men; for it was she who gave men the digging stick and the tump line. She was a night walker, screaming and weeping copiously, but she was also a warrior; on her back she carried the knife of sacrifice swaddled like a child.5
Cihuacoatl was demonized, rejected, as the powerfully cruel side of woman, frightening to men, and thus undesired in a patriarchal society.
Women experience the shadow sister as Ereshkigal, depression personified; as Medusa, sublimated rage; as Kali in her frenzied dance; as Cam the fairytale Black Bride; as Medea “who destroys relationships, kills her children and says, ‘Let the whole house crash!’”6 Here we see women’s strength, fury, misery, and destructiveness, split off from the anima like Ereshkigal howling in the darkness.
The most powerful and thus frightening aspects of female divinity were relegated to the caves, to the dark corners of the world as chthonic goddesses, contrasted with those ruling from Olympus. “The crucial psychological fact is that all of us, female as well as male, fear the will of woman… the earliest and profoundest prototype of absolute power.”7 This power is too great for adults to struggle against. “To contain it, to keep it under control and harness it to chosen purposes, is a vital need.”8
However, it is an even greater need to seek it to discover it, to learn its vital lessons. Those who suppress their dark side are vulnerable to its impulses and desires, yet unable to accept them. It is the people who do not know enough about their own shadow and their own dark side who are most likely to fall victim to evil influences.9
The woman who fights against her father still has the possibility of leading an instinctive, feminine existence, because she rejects only what is alien to her. But when she fights against the mother she may, at the risk of injury to her instincts, attain to greater consciousness, because in repudiating the mother she repudiates all that is obscure, instinctive, ambiguous, and unconscious in her own nature.10
Thus the young questor descends into darkness, like Inanna, to meet Ereshki-gal and learn her secrets.
The shadow archetype, described by Jung’s philosophy, is the characteristics of ourself we most detest, projected onto another person of the same gender, as “the shadow cast by the conscious mind of the individual contains the hidden, repressed, and unfavorable (or nefarious) aspects of the personality.”11 However, more than simply the inverse of the heroine, this shadow has hidden positive qualities as well, often strong and assertive where the heroine is silent and passive. And as the dark mother or witch-queen is the heroine’s shadow, the daughter also represents the shadow for the mother — her flaws and unfulfilled desires made manifest. In her battle to achieve a higher consciousness, the heroine pits herself against this shadow, and must integrate it into the self.
To Jungian scholars, though the shadow has been buried in the underworld, it has much to offer the questor.
Envy, lust, sensuality, deceit, and all known vices are the negative, “dark” aspect of the unconscious, which can manifest itself in two ways. In the positive sense, it appears as a “spirit of nature,” creatively animating Man, things, and the world…. In the negative sense, the unconscious (that same spirit) manifests itself as a spirit of evil, as a drive to destroy.12
The shadow usually contains values that are needed by consciousness, but that exist in a form that makes it difficult to integrate them into one’s life.”13 These are parts of the self that one has been unwilling to look at too closely, made manifest. Today we have crimes and horrors in the news, in fiction, in movies, which give us a place to invest our dark emotions and act out our fantasies outside ourselves. Other, less healthy, relationships involve projecting these dark emotions onto another person: spouse, parent, or child. Others scapegoat a community or person, heaping on them all the world’s sins. These buried aspects sometimes surface at inopportune times, a slip of the tongue or a moment’s rage which is quickly suppressed and once again buried. But the hero’s deepest quest is to stop projecting onto others and triumph over these buried aspects within the self, valuing the rage and fury that can drive one to the greatest heights.


Aztec  Moon Goddess Coyolxauhqui – Temple Mayor Museum, Mexico City, 1400 A.D. (she is the one on the aztec sunstone!) Related to lava, obsidean altars and the earth. The Aztec Calendar Stone was carved from solidified lava in the late 15th century!!
Daughter of Coatlicue, who in turn is the female aspect of OmeTeotl a dualistic god (sky/earth)
This duality later transpires to sister/brother etc.

Ometeotl is God of…

  • Duality
  • Souls
  • Heaven (Omeyocan, “Place of Duality”)

Equivalents in Other Cultures

Hunab Ku, Itzamna in Mayan mythology

Coyolxauhqui, coatlicues daughter, is the Aztec goddess of the moon and the stars, is usually depicted with bells on her cheeks and surrounded by lunar symbols. According to some scholars, Coyolxauhqui may have represented a much earlier, female fertility cult.
Name and Etymology
“Bells of Gold”
Religion and Culture of Coyolxauhqui
Aztec, Mesoamerica
Symbols, Iconography, and Art of Coyolxauhqui
Coyolxauhqui is depicted with bells on her cheeks and surrounded by lunar symbols.
Although thought of as a young goddess, sometimes her images show her as very old with sagging breasts. A massive statue of her unearthed in 1978 shows her with severed head and hands, just after Huitzilopochtli finished with her.
Both children of coatlicue
Sun and Moon

Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, also called Xiuhpilli (“Turquoise Prince”) and Totec (“Our Lord”), Aztec sun and war god, one of the two principal deities of Aztec religion, often represented in art as either a hummingbird or an eagle.


Huitzilopochtli’s name is a cognate of the Nahuatl words huitzilin, “hummingbird,” and opochtli, “left.” Aztecs believed that dead warriors were reincarnated as hummingbirds and considered the south to be the left side of the world; thus, his name meant the “resuscitated warrior of the south.” His other names included Xiuhpilli (“Turquoise Prince”) and Totec (“Our Lord”). His nagual, or animal disguise, was the eagle.

Huitzilopochtli’s mother, Coatlicue, is one aspect of the Aztecs’ multidimensional earth goddess; she conceived him after having kept in her bosom a ball of hummingbird feathers (i.e., the soul of a warrior) that fell from the sky. According to tradition, Huitzilopochtli was born on Coatepec Mountain, near the city of Tula.

Huitzilopochtli’s brothers, the stars of the southern sky (Centzon Huitznáua, “Four Hundred Southerners”), and his sister Coyolxauhqui, a moon goddess, decided to kill him. He foiled their plot and exterminated them with his weapon, the xiuh cóatl (“turquoise snake”).

Huitzilopochtli is presented as the deity who guided the long migration the Aztecs undertook from Aztlan, their traditional home, to the Valley of Mexico. During the journey his image, in the form of a hummingbird, was carried upon the shoulders of priests, and at night his voice was heard giving orders. Thus, according to Huitzilopochtli’s command, Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, was founded in 1325 ce on a small, rocky island in the lake of the Valley of Mexico. The god’s first shrine was built on the spot where priests found an eagle poised upon a rock and devouring a snake, an image so important to Mexican culture that it is portrayed on the national flag of Mexico. Successive Aztec rulers enlarged the shrine until the year Eight Reed (1487), when an impressive temple was dedicated by the emperor Ahuitzotl.

The Aztecs believed that the sun god needed daily nourishment (tlaxcaltiliztli) in the form of human blood and hearts and that they, as “people of the sun,” were required to provide Huitzilopochtli with his sustenance. The sacrificial hearts were offered to the sun quauhtlehuanitl (“eagle who rises”) and burned in the quauhxicalli (“the eagle’s vase”). Warriors who died in battle or as sacrifices to Huitzilopochtli were called quauhteca (“the eagle’s people”). It was believed that after their death the warriors first formed part of the sun’s brilliant retinue; then after four years they went to live forever in the bodies of hummingbirds.


The story of Huitzilopochtli fighting with Coyolxauhqui is the day fighting with the night. male to female. sun with moon. Coyolxauhqui was dismembered and decapitated by Huitzilopochtli . This is the exact same story as Perseus Slaying Medusa. The symbology is also exactly the same. Note the “running pose” of Coyolxauhqui and her belt of snakes, Exactly like Medusa on the greek temples. This beyond reason of doubt proofs there was some form of cultural relation perhaps by seafarers between the old world and the new world before columbus from the west. It also was populated from the east.


Coatlicue is the earth. With the snake heads Here we see also GEB with a snake head as earth. Coatlicue is a combination deity of sky and earth. NUT and GEB in 1. Like the eagle and the snake. The sky and the earth. Male and female. Together they birth their children, the sun and the moon


A seal from Vapheio (left) and a Minoan seal from Kydonia (right) (from Marinatos, 2010)

The godess and swastika(triskele) combined.

As the skies are allways revolving, the swastika and triskele imagery is just that, every going motion. Every going (re)creation.



The Rivers and the waters

The rivers/waters flowing on the sides is “like the blood of medusa” summer and winter. One side “good” and one side “bad”. This is seen back in the Hero twins, both representing a side of the milkyway (the summer and winter constellations) or year.

The two snakes and cadaceus

The symbol of the two waters, or two rivers on each side is also depicted as snakes.  Like the Minoan godess. Orions counterpart was Ophiucius, now holding 1 snake but in the past he held two, caput and serpens. Just like Viracocha. Like the blood of medusa, or the hero twins from the Codex Borgia, one side is bad (winter) one side is good (summer). Together entwined they form time itself the cadaceus. Of particular note is here that we see that like the greeks said one side of medusa was bad and the other good, we see this exact blood link symbolism in the mayas hero twins codex borgia depictions. The interesting part here is that the Hero twins are added which is not visible on the exact same depiction of pacals tomblid. (that btw is not rocketship but a depiction of the milkyway, an astrological reference, more on that later)

The two snakes are seen on mayan pyramids and Hindu pyramids, where they alternate between dragons, snakes and lions. The mountain is mount meru, the central pillar or milkyway and its central bulge. The snakes also the spiraling universe. You also see them on the aztec calender, where they are just like the Hindu culture, the Makara monsters with the long snout. The author also suggest that the chitzen itza temple dragons are wrongfully reconstructed by archeologists, their elongated “makara” snouts now stuck to the snakes chin.

Which should be reconstructed like this:

The “monster in the middle with tongue sticking out”


Aztec calender central figure




The double mountain

Of special note here is the “double mountain relief” Seen in Sumeria, Egypt, Mayan civilizations. With the sun in the middle, which is also depicted as aker, the two lions or two sides. We even see this in Mycenean civilization where the palace of the lion gate is situated between two mountains on the middle one. The lionsgate itself is again a representation of the great godess in the form of a pillar, like asherah was depicted as a pillar for the jews, and the menorah is the tree of life, with the 7 lights of the little dipper on its peak, the milkyway with a slit in the altar signifying her vulva and the lions of the side the two sides of the milkyway.

The two dragons, lions or other animals

The two dragons on enki’s shoulder are of particular relevance as that is the ecleptic, also depicted as AKER symbol, the two lions or sometimes other animals. We see this later also in the Budha who has the same dragons on his shoulders, then called makaras. Makaras appear again in Mayan Civilizations.

The Axe, or Labrys

Related to Labyrinth (the sky), again a reference to the two sides as probably would be the double headed eagle, from the bird on top of the mayan tree. The bird, comes from the little dipper containing the pole star. Quetzal Coatl, often translated as Feathered serpent, also means, Quetzal Twins. The quetzal being a bird, like stele 25 from  Izapa where one sees two bird, respectively the female bird, the little dipper with the polesta at the back of the crocodile tree monster (note our christmas tree with star on top) , the milkyway, like the Hindu Makara and the right bird the male big dipper bird.

The water bottles, flowing waters or Shiva Nataraja Hair

Are also a recurring theme, to indicate water/flow, the  milkyway was a river to the ancient. (the godess Ganga) hence the reference to water, but also a liking to a Makara, crocodile (sobek) or other aquatic animals like the egyptian Tawaret. The monster godess of childbirth.

The “Godess” who births (creates) and “takes Life” as a monster depicted.

Perseus, the sun, beheads “the monster” winter and life is abundant again. Or the Virgin summer/virgo, turns into a monster/winter. Osiris (orion), goes to the underworld, orion constellations moves to below the horizon. Capricorn the devil / goat in Hell etc etc. Jezus (orion) put in a “cave”

Ishtar was an important deity in Mesopotamian religion from around 3500 BCE, until its gradual decline between the 1st and 5th centuries CE with the spread of Christianity.

Ishtar is a Semitic name of uncertain etymology, possibly derived from a Semitic term meaning “to irrigate”. George A. Barton, an early scholar on the subject, suggests that the name stems from “irrigating ditch” and “that which is irrigated by water alone”, therefore meaning “she who waters”, or “is watered” or “the self-waterer”. (milkyway reference)

First picture:
Old Babylonian relief from the early second millennium BCE showing Ishtar wearing a crown and flounced skirt, holding her symbol, currently held in the Louvre Museum

Second picture:
The relief is displayed in the British Museum in London, which has dated it between 1800 and 1750 BCE



Appearance: The hieroglyphic sign for “mountain” depicted to peaks with a valley running between them. This image approximated the hills that rose up on either side of the Nile valley.

Meaning: Although the djew hieroglyph did portray the mountain ranges the Egyptians saw in their everyday lives, it also was a visualization of their cosmic beliefs. Symbolically, the “mountain” was an image of the universal mountain whose two peaks were imagined to hold up the sky. The eastern peak was called Bakhu, to the west was Manu. The ends of this great mountain were guarded by two lions who were called Aker. Aker was a protector of the the sun as it rose and set each day.

Aker is one of the earliest Egyptian earth gods and is the deification of the horizon. He represents the horizon where the sun rises in the East and the sun sets in the West. He is believed to be protecting the sun god Ra, as he enters the netherworld during sunset and returns to the land of the living at sunrise. He is also believed to the guardian of the sun god against his enemy, the demon god Apep by imprisoning his coils to secure safe passage of Ra Only Aker can neutralize the bite of the snake demon god. His name may also be spelled as Akar which roughly translates into “he who bends”.

He was originally portrayed as a narrow strip of land with a lion or a human head at both ends facing away from each other (usually one faces the east and the other the west). Later, he is depicted as two lions facing opposite each other most commonly called Ruti (two lions). Lions were used because the summer solstice usually peaks at the time of the zodiac Leo. The Ruti carries on their back the hieroglyphic sign of the horizon with the sun with the sky above it. Later on, the lions were given names: Sef that means yesterday and Tuau that means today. The lions are often spotted like a leopard as representation of the now extinct Barbary lions. He also may be carrying the akhet – the symbol of the Egyptian sky. It is a solar disc supported between the two summits of the mountain djew. The western crest was called Manu, while the eastern summit was called Bakhu. These peaks cradled the sky as well. Sometimes, the heads of the lions may be that of men or women.

However, these lions were believed to be aggressive in nature when they are called Akeru (the plural form of Aker). The Pyramid Texts suggests that Akeru would not attack the king or the pharaoh but not necessarily the others. The texts further suggest that no one can escape the clutches of the two lions. The two lions were called Sef and Duau, which means “Yesterday” and “Today” respectively.

As Egyptians believed that the gates of the morning and evening were guarded by Aker, they often placed statues of lions at the doors of their palaces and tombs. This was to guard the households and tombs from evil spirits and other malevolent beings. Sometimes they gave these statues the heads of men and women. The Greeks called this class of statuary, “Sphinxes.”

The Egyptian necropolis was typically located in the mountainous desert and so the djew was also closely associated with the concepts of the tomb and of the afterlife. The god of mummification, Anubis bore the epithet, “He who is upon his mountain.” Hathor, the “Mistress of the Necropolis”, while in the form of a cow, was often shown emerging from the side of the western mountain.



Afghanistan: Scythian Gold ornament from Tillia Tepe


A seal from Vapheio (left) and a Minoan seal from Kydonia (right) (from Marinatos, 2010)

Other relevant finds are the gold seal from Turkmenistan Potna Therion, which is directly used to explain the lions gate at Mycenea (the deliberate slit in the altar)

And the Votive clay figure from Altyn Depe (the Golden Hill), Turkmenistan showing the two snakes with the godess like the minoan cult.

The pillar of life is directly related to the great godess and tree of life which is in turn the milkyway.


Votive clay figure from Altyn Depe (the Golden Hill), Turkmenistan.


Copyright © 2012 Ray Dickenson

Turkmenistan, ca 2000 BC, Schaffhausen (the great godess depicted half as tree of life half as godess)


Winged goddess with a Gorgon’s head wearing a split skirt and holding a bird in each hand, type of the Potnia Theron. Probably made on Rhodes. From Kameiros, Rhodes.


Multiple images of Potnia Theron



Who is Britannia?

Britannia is presented in mainstream circles as the female personification of Britain and has done so since the Romans invaded Britain in 43AD. She is depicted as a war like figure, wearing a Corinthians hat and brandishing a shield and trident. She is mostly associated with the sea and features in the popular song, Britannia rules the waves.

However, there is a deeper esoteric meaning behind the symbol which dates back to ancient times long before the Roman Empire was even thought of. The classic symbol of Britannia resembles the ancient Phoenician goddess, Barati, who was recogonised in the Indian Vedas as goddess of the waters.

Her name actually derives from an elite clan of the Aryans who settled in Sumeria around 7500 years ago. The clan was known as the Barats, thus Barati means “belonging to the Barats.” There is a suspicion that this powerful clan have infiltrated cultures and risen to power under another guise.

Goddess of the waters

The symbol of Barati certainly keeps appearing throughout the ancient empires. In ancient Vedic hymns she is called the “Holy Lady of the Waters,” and in the hymn “napat the Son of the Waters,” is hailed as the First-made mother. It is for this reason she is confused with Semiramis, Isis, Athena or Minerva, all of whom are the same goddess passed on through Babylon, Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire.

In ancient Egypt Barati was known as Bairthy, goddess of water and was depicted with a small pitcher balanced on her head, holding a long spear-like sceptre. In Greece she was the goddess Brito-Martis and is always depicted in arms. The Romans adopted the image as Fortuna – the goddess of Good fortune.

So we can see from ancient history, that the modern day symbol of Britannia represents the goddess of the sea and brings good fortune in the times of war – hence the lyrics, “Britannia rules the waves.” Given that modern day symbols used by the elite all come from ancient times yet we are never told what they really represent, it should come as no surprise that few Britons can actually identify a significant symbol in British history!

Artemis, Ashtoreth, Astarte, Atargatis, Athirat, Azzanathcona, Ceres, Cybele, Dana / Danann, Demeter, Easter, Eostre, Innana, Ishtar, Isis, Lilith
and many later cognomens


`Amazons’ and `Gorgons’
Aegean, Mediterranean, N Africa

Chieftain Goddess

Chieftain / Warrior Goddess


`Tuatha Dé Danann’
Western Europe, Ireland, Orkney

Maiden Goddess

Maiden Goddess

Mother Goddess

Mother Goddess

From earliest times – 9,000 to 10,000 years ago – images of `The Goddess’ as Maiden, Chieftain or Mother were shown flanked by `royal’ leopards, panthers or lions, as seen in the above relics from the eastern Mediterranean & Black Sea area; i.e. Syria, Crete, and Anatolia.

She also ruled over plant & animal life & breeding and so is often shown with foliage & lambs / goats etc.
Some early images seem to show `sacred’ Twins (male) at one side, sometimes beside a column or upright beam.

Wild `sacred’ animals belonged to the Goddess;  these were birds (owls and eagles), snakes, and bulls (often represented by the `votive horns’ seen above-center).  Some of these animals were retained in her later incarnations – below.


The Great Goddess, in different countries and later epochs


The Goddess as Astarte of Phoenicia holding serpents - Elohim, Goddess of Animals           The Goddess as Cybele/Artemis of Izmir, Turkey           The Goddess in Phrygia, Anatolia           The Goddess in Minoan Crete

Fuenta magna bowl South America with sumerian writing showing the snake godess in squating / wide open legs pose.





The Goddess at Babylon

Minoan Mountain Goddess + Lions, with Votive Horns           The Goddess as Astarte of Ugarit, Syria           Egypt - Goddess, with a Snake and Lions, as Tefnut (at birth?) - Eye of Ra


Icons, Seals and Symbols for The Great Goddess

Indus Valley


Indus Valley Seal                     Indus Valley Seal2                     Indus Valley - Mohenjo Seal

Simplified image of The Goddess – as Warrior or Chief – holding or restraining two lions, apparently used as identifying `seals’; either for individuals (priestesses), or for goods / cargo headed to or from `Great Goddess’ territories.

Ancient – Pre-Pharaonic – Egypt (shows LION + BULL)

Early Egyptian Tomb painting

A similarly simplified image of The Goddess – as Warrior or Chief – holding or restraining two lions, on a c. 5,500 year old tomb in southern Egypt.  I.e. – dating from well before the time of the pharaohs.



Great Goddess image survivals from – Syria, Spain, Mesopotamia (Iran), Greece (Sparta), central Egypt, Israel, Mycenaean Greece etc.

(Mouse-over for site names or other details)

Goddess as `Ishtar' w/lion - probably of Syria

Fountain at Almunecar           Mother Goddess w/ Lions - Anatolia           Carving at Susa, Mesopotamian Iran           Carving of Goddess as Artemis, Sparta           Knife-hilt from Abydos area

Maiden Goddess with lions - bronze coin           Goddess with snakes and lions           Mycenaean Goddess w/Lions           Goddess of Minoan Crete - w/Lions           Detail from Taanach Stand - Israel


Great Goddess Warrior images used a fear-symbol – probably by later patriarchal opponents – Etruria & Ireland

Warrior Goddess as `Gorgon' - Etruscans' name for their `Amazonian' enemy                               Warrior Goddess as `Sheel na Gig', a fear-figure of later Irish clerics



This is not a pillar at hatussa. Its a giant figure without a head, You see the arms. The hole is her womb / vagina. The head was taken of / destroyed as in muslim country Turkey.

Mistress of the animals on Boiotian clay pyxis Antikensammlung Berlin

The Lion Gate of Mycenae

The Lion Gate of Mycenae was the entrance to the city. Atop the gate, two lions rampant are carved in stone relief. Similar bas-reliefs of two lions rampant facing each other are found in a number of places in Phrygia in Asia Minor.1

The Lion Gate of Mycenae
Arslantas, Rock-cut Phrygian tomb

“The resemblance in idea is complete,” wrote W. M. Ramsay in 1888.2 He considered the scheme “so peculiarly characteristic of Phrygia, that we can hardly admit it to have been borrowed from any other country.” He found himself “driven to the conclusion that the Mycenaean artists either are Phrygians or learned the idea from the Phrygians.”3 “It is not allowable to separate them [the Phrygian and Mycenaean monuments] in time by several centuries.”4

“The Phrygian monuments,” in Ramsay’s view, belong to the ninth and eighth centuries.5

. . . The end of the Phrygian kingdom is a fixed date, about 675 B.C.”6 when the invasion of Asia Minor by the Cimmerians put an end to the Phrygian culture and art. Ramsay went on:

I do not think it is allowable to place the Mycenaean gateway earlier than the ninth, and it is more likely to belong to the eighth century.

The view to which I find myself forced is as follows. There was in the eighth century lively intercourse between Argos and Asia Minor: in this intercourse the Argives learned . . . to fortify their city in the Phrygian style with lions over the gate. Historically there is certainly good reason to assign at least part of the fortifications of Mycenae to the time when the Argive kings [the tyrants of the eighth century] were the greatest power in Greece [here follow the names of several authorities among the historians who hold the same view].8

On the other hand, the almost universal opinion of archaeologists rejects this hypothesis. . . .

Oriental influences found in the remains of Mycenae are “precisely what we should expect in a kingdom like the Argos of the eighth century,” when this kingdom had intercourse with Asia Minor, Phoenicia and Egypt. “I wish however to express no opinion here about the date of the Mycenaean tombs and about Mycenaean pottery, but only to argue that the fortifications of the Lion Gate belong to the period 800-700 B.C.”9

I quote this opinion of Ramsay with the special intention of showing how this viewpoint was invalidated.

The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie made the following reply:

“[A] matter which demands notice is Professor Ramsay’s conclusion that the lion gateway is of as late a date as the eighth century B.C. This results from assuming it to be derived from Phrygian lion groups, on the ground of not knowing of any other prototype. As however we now have a wooden lion, in exactly the same attitude, dated to 1450 in Egypt . . . it seems that the Phrygian designs are not the only source of this motive for Mykenae.”10

In Egypt of the latter part of the Eighteenth Dynasty a single instance of a rampant lion (not two rampant lions facing each other as at Mycenae and in Phrygia) made Petrie claim Egypt as a possible place of origin of this image rather than Phrygia. He had discovered heaps of Mycenaean ware in Egypt of the time of Akhnaton. He could not but conclude that these heaps coming from Mycenae must be dated to the fourteenth century.11

Equally impressive was the discovery at Mycenae of a number of objects of Eighteenth-Dynasty date, such as objects bearing the cartouches of Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, and Queen Tiy.12

Therefore Petrie decidedly opposed Ramsay in his estimate of eighth century for the Lion Gate and the fortification wall of Mycenae.13

Here is a case where evidence from Anatolia pointed to the eighth century;14 but the Egyptologist demanded of the classical scholar that he disregard this evidence in favor of the time scale of Egypt.

The debate between Ramsay and Petrie took place before Evans’ archaeological work on Crete; there rampant lions were found engraved on Late Minoan gems,15 conveying the idea that Mycenae must have borrowed the image from there, from a period well preceding the Phrygian models.16 Yet one should not lose sight of the fact that Crete’s chronology was also built upon relations with Egypt. In the section “The Scandal of Enkomi” we shall read how Evans objected to the chronological implications of Cypriote archaeology by stressing relations between the Egyptian and the Minoan (Cretan) chronologies on the one hand, and Minoan and Cypriote on the other. In Ages in Chaos it was shown in great detail why the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt must be placed in the latter part of the ninth century. Thus even if Crete was the original source of the motif, Mycenae and Phrygia both deriving it thence, the dependence of Cretan chronology on that of Egypt constitutes the crux of the problem.17

Let us keep in mind that in the 1880s and 1890s classical scholars of the stature of W. M. Ramsay (1851-1939) questioned the inclusion of the Dark Ages of several hundred years’ duration between the Mycenaean past and the Ionic age in Greece. And let us not overlook what was the supposedly crushing argument for wedging more than half a millennium into the history of ancient Greece.



  1. Cf. especially the relief on the “Lion Tomb” at Arslan Tash near Afyonkarahisar (fig.)

  2. Ramsay, “A Study of Phrygian Art,” Journal of Hellenic Studies IX (1888), p. 369. [Ramsay, “Studies in Asia Minor,” Journal of Hellenic Studies III (1882), p. 19—but see G. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (Princeton, 1966), p. 173.]

  3. Ramsay, “A Study of Phrygian Art,” pp. 369-370. [Earlier representations of two rampant lions facing each other are known from Crete; however, it is for the carving technique on stone on a monumental scale that Mycenae seems to be indebted to Phrygia. For a link to Assyria, see L. M. Greenberg, “The Lion Gate at Mycenae,” Pensée IVR III, p. 26.]

  4. Ibid., p. 70.

  5. [Emilie Haspels in Highlands of Phrygia (Princeton, 1971) dates the Phrygian reliefs at Arslan Tash to “the last third of the eighth century B.C., the period of the ‘Phrygian City’ of Gordion” (vol. I, p. 135; cf. vol. II, pl. 131-32). E. Akurgal, however, puts the same reliefs in the early sixth century, deriving them from Ionian, and ultimately Egyptian models—Die Kust Anatoliens von Homer bis Alexander (Berlin, 1961) pp. 86-90, 95. EMS ].

  6. Ramsay, “A Study in Phrygian Art,” p. 351.

  7. [Ramsey considered the Mycenaean relief “much more advanced in art” though “not necessarily later in date” than the Phrygian Lion Tomb: “Some Phrygian Monuments,” Journal of Hellenic Studies III (1882) p. 257. For evidence of Phrygian influence on eighth-century Greece, see R. S. Young, “The Nomadic Impact: Gordion” in Dark Ages and Nomads c. 1000 B.C.: Studies in Iranian and Anatolian Archaeology, ed. by M. J. Mellink (Leiden, 1964), p. 54.]

  8. U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, “Oropos und die Graer,” Hermes XXI (1886), p. 111, n. 1, and idem, Isyllos von Epidauros (Berlin, 1886), p. n.1; B. Niese, Die Entwicklung der homerischen Poesie (Berlin, 1882), p. 213, n. 1. A. S. Murray and S. Reinach are also among those cited by Ramsay as concurring with his opinion (p. 370, n. 3).

  9. Ramsay, “A Study of Phrygian Art,” pp. 370-71.

  10. Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie, “Notes on the Antiquities of Mykenae,” Journal of Hellenic Studies XII (1891), pp. 202-03. [Petrie also attempted to fix the dates of many of the finds from the Mycenaean tombs by comparing them with objects from Egypt whose antiquity he considered to be well-established.]

  11. Cf. J. D. S. Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca (Cambridge, 1930), pp. 111ff. [V. Hankey and P. Warren, “The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Late Bronze Age,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (University of London) XXI (1974), pp. 142-152.]

  12. Cf. Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca, pp. 53-57; Hankey and Warren, “The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Late Bronze Age.”

  13. Boardman notes that monumental sculpture of this kind is unknown in Greece from the time the Lion Gate of Mycenae was built until the eighth century: “More than five hundred years were to pass before Greek sculptors could [again] command an idiom that would satisfy these aspirations in sculpture and architecture.” Greek Art (New York, 1964), p. 22. [A few other 500-year enigmas appear at Mycenae. See below, Supplement, “Applying the Revised Chronology,” by Edwin Schorr.]

  14. [In The Sea People Sandars points out the stylistic similarity between the Lion Gate of Mycenae and the Lion Gate of Boghazkoi. EMS]

  15. [Some of these gems were known even before Evans’ digs—see for instance the intaglio in G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, History of Art in Primitive Greece II (London, 1894), pp. 214 and 246, depicting two rampant lions facing each other in a way similar to that on the Lion Gate. Cf. also the gems shown in Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel, ed. F. Matz and H. Bisantz (Berlin, 1964) nos. 46, 144, 145, 172.]

  16. [N. Platon, (“Cretan-Mycenaean Art,” Encyclopaedia of World Art IV [New York, 1958], p. 109) thought that “the technique of the execution [of the Lion Gate] is clearly inspired by Cretan sculpture.” But the Cretan sculptures, unlike those in Phrygia, are miniatures, and Platon needs to assume “the effective translation of a miniature theme into a major sculptural creation” (R. Higgins, Minoan-Mycenaean Art [New York, 1967], p. 92). Sandars in The Sea Peoples points out the similarity of the monumental carving style of the Lion Gate of Boghazkoi in central Anatolia to the Lion Gate of Mycenae.]

  17. [The discovery of Late Helladic IIIB pottery in strata excavated underneath the gate is used to establish the date of its construction.] But this pottery, too, is dated on the basis of relations with Egypt.

The Wonders of the Heavens: Being a Popular View of Astronomy, Including a Full Illustration of the Mechanism of the Heavens; Embracing the Sun, Moon, and Stars


Book by Duncan bradford 1845