“(Aztec; Ome, “duality” and Tecuhtli, “Lord”) The Lord of Duality. This is seen as the Androgynous nature of the Spirit. He is represented as being joined with his spouse Omecihuatl (see entry by that name). Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is the Aztec Osiris-Isis, Joseph-Mary, Shiva-Shakti, or Samantabahdra-Samantabahdri. This aspect of the Spirit is seen Kabbalistically within Daath, where divine creativity resides. The conjunction of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is called Ometeotl, the one androgynous spirit. The dwelling place of Ometeotl is the Omeyocan. The children of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl are the four aspects of the Cosmic Christ: Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl, and Xipetotec. See Omeyocan, Tezcatlipoca.
These might well be the 4 directions.
Wordly conceptual and visual parallels in Greek and Egyptian cultures
Further interesting Parallels are there on the female aspect and its representation, the snakes, with Egypt, representations of Wadjet, as dual snake headed women which in turn is the later female aspect Medusa, the Minoan snake godess and Aztec Coatlicue.
The left figure from us is easily identified by most people as a figure. The right one is a figure to, with two snakes for a head.
We see the dual headed snake figure also in Egypt and behold, also holding snakes like Viracocha. There it is a representation of Wadjet. The female aspect of Duality.
Quite similar to Viracocha, yet the Egypt version is only the female aspect, while Viracocha is male and female combined. Now do you see the left figure on the Tiwanaku statue is this figure with two snakeheads?
Below the figure on the gate of the sun, Viracocha. He is a representation of male (sungod) and female (the snakes) in 1.
The Minoan snake godess is only female aspect of nature but in similar execution of overall ‘design’ .
It also shows on Isis on the Qetesh stele.
The lion below her as Leo is close to virgo, it links her to the Indian Durga, Brittania and other archetypes. (Shiva is male aspect) In modern times this translated to the red and blue Colour in occultism. Shiva and Durga are also seen as a combined God. Duality in 1, the universe. (Virgo/Leo and Otion/Taurus, sungod and moon, male and female etc)
Here below another Egyptian representation of Wadjet, the female aspect , compare it to the tiwanaku figure in the statues left hand. (right for you.) it’s the female aspect of the duality.
The dual snakes is the female aspect of nature.
It is important to understand that sometimes the female aspect is depicted as stand alone and sometimes male and female are in 1 image.
Examples of combined imagery, the two figures in tiwanaku statues hands, viracocha(male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon), young horus (male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon) and the sundisk with the two snakes.
Here below we see from the mochicha culture that predated chavin the disk of sun with the two snakes and priest on top. Again a duality, identical to the Egyptian sundisk in execution and concept.
Stand alone images of the female aspect are Wadjet in human form with two heads, Medusa, Coatlicue.
Now if we look back at the Mochicha culture we see this:
Or, at the Aztec calender stone…
The similarities are obvious. It’s the female aspect of nature.
Hindu godess Kali
So how can these cultures, Greek, mochicha, Aztec, Egyptian, Indian, that have nothing to do with each other come up with identical concepts?
Medusa was the crone stage of a triple moon godess. All that looked at her ‘turned to stone’ or, slept at night… Then she was ‘defeated’ by the sun solar hero Perseus. The Medusa type we see in many cultures exactly depicted the same.. WHY?
The easiest way out is to blame Jung archetypes.
Yet the visual execution is very similar in all these cultures. The fanged teeth, the tongue, the dual snake heads, the snakes for female aspect.
Shiva wearing the cobra like Egyptian pharaohs the uraeus.
Wadjet was depicted as a cobra. As patron and protector, later Wadjet often was shown coiled upon the head of Ra; in order to act as his protection, this image of her became the uraeus symbol used on the royal crowns as well.
Interesting.. The milky-way reference..
“An interpretation of the Milky Way was that it was the primal snake, Wadjet, the protector of Egypt. In this interpretation she was closely associated with Hathor and other early deities among the various aspects of the great mother goddess, including Mut and Naunet. The association with Hathor brought her son Horus into association also. The cult of Ra absorbed most of Horus’s traits and included the protective eye of Wadjet that had shown her association with Hathor.
When identified as the protector of Ra, who was also a sun deity associated with heat and fire, she was sometimes said to be able to send fire onto those who might attack, just as the cobra spits poison into the eyes of its enemies. In this role she was called the Lady of Flame.
As the patron goddess, she was associated with the land and depicted as a snake-headed woman or a snake—usually an Egyptian cobra, a venomous snake common to the region; sometimes she was depicted as a woman with two snake heads and, at other times, a snake with a woman’s head. Her oracle was in the renowned temple in Per-Wadjet that was dedicated to her worship and gave the city its name. This oracle may have been the source for the oracular tradition that spread to Greece from Egypt.
The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. It is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a snake’s head, or as a woman wearing the uraeus. The uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity.”
Orion, Shiva nataraja with the milky-way above his head.
As mentioned above, the sundisk with two snakes, is not just a random image. It’s not only a sundisk.
It is a representation of the combined dualistic nature of the universe in 1 image.
It is the same concept as Viracocha (sungod) holding two snakes or Horus on top of Wadjet in hatshepsut temple.
Wadjets head just has disapeared as can be seen from steles on same temple. The snake body next to the stairs is still to be seen.
We have seen snakes on balustrades before in other ‘unrelated’ cultures.
To conclude, identical representations of duality span global cultures.
They not only share concept but also execution and visual representations that can not be ignored any longer. The fact that the Tiwanaku culture has visual similarities and cultural duality concepts executed also in Egypt, like mentioned above is worthy of considering the possibilities of a shared ancestry or cultural global contact and exchange by a previous civilization.
Atlantis, the Antediluvian World, by Ignatius Donnelly, , at sacred-texts.com
ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL.
AN examination of the American monuments shows (see figure on page 269) that the people represented were in the habit of flattening the skull by artificial means. The Greek and Roman writers had mentioned this practice, but it was long totally forgotten by the civilized world, until it was discovered, as an unheard-of wonder, to be the usage among the Carib Islanders, and several Indian tribes in North America. It was afterward found that the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans practised this art: several flattened Peruvian skulls are depicted in Morton’s “Crania Americana.” It is still in use among the Flat-head Indians of the north-western part of the United States.
In 1849 a remarkable memoir appeared from the pen of M. Rathke, showing that similar skulls had been found near Kertsch, in the Crimea, and calling attention to the book of Hippocrates, “De Aeris, Aquis et Locu,” lib. iv., and a passage of Strabo, which speaks of the practice among the Scythians. In 1854 Dr. Fitzinger published a learned memoir on the skulls of the Avars, a branch of the Uralian race of Turks. He shows that the practice of flattening the head had existed from an early date throughout the East, and described an ancient skull, greatly distorted by artificial means, which had lately been found in Lower Austria. Skulls similarly flattened have been found in Switzerland and Savoy. The Huns under Attila had the same practice of flattening the heads. Professor Anders Retzius proved (see “Smithsonian Report,” 1859) that the custom still exists in the south of France, and in parts of Turkey.
[paragraph continues]“Not long since a French physician surprised the world by the fact that nurses in Normandy were still giving the children’s heads a sugar-loaf shape by bandages and a tight cap,
STUCCO BAS-RELIEF IN THE PALACE OF PALENQUE.
while in Brittany they preferred to press it round. No doubt they are doing so to this day.” (Tylor’s “Anthropology,” p. 241.)
Professor Wilson remarks:
“Trifling as it may appear, it is not without interest to have the fact brought under our notice, by the disclosures of ancient
barrows and cysts, that the same practice of nursing the child and carrying it about, bound to a flat cradle-board, prevailed in Britain and the north of Europe long before the first notices of written history reveal the presence of man beyond the Baltic or the English Channel, and that in all probability the same custom prevailed continuously from the shores of the German Ocean to Behring’s Strait.” (“Smithsonian Report,” 1862, p. 286.)
Dr. L. A. Gosse testifies to the prevalence of the same custom among the Caledonians and Scandinavians in the earliest times; and Dr. Thurman has treated of the same peculiarity among the Anglo-Saxons. Crania Britannica,” chap. iv., p. 38.)
ANCIENT SWISS SKULL.
Here, then, is an extraordinary and unnatural practice which has existed from the highest antiquity, over vast regions of country, on both sides of the Atlantic, and which is perpetuated unto this day in races as widely separated as the Turks, the French, and the Flat-head Indians. Is it possible to explain this except by supposing that it originated from some common centre?
The annexed out represents an ancient Swiss skull, from a cemetery near Lausanne, from a drawing of Frederick Troyon. Compare this with the illustration given on page 271, which represents a Peruvian flat-head, copied from Morton’s “Ethnography and Archæology of the American Aborigines,” 1846. This skull is shockingly distorted. The dotted lines indicate the course of the bandages by which the skull was deformed.
CHINOOK (FLAT-HEAD), AFTER CATLIN.
The following heads are from Del Rio’s “Account of Palenque,” copied into Nott and Gliddon’s “Types of Mankind,” p. 440. They show that the receding forehead was a natural characteristic of the ancient people of Central America. The same form of head has been found even in fossil skulls. We may therefore conclude that the skull-flattening, which we find to have been practised in both the Old and New Worlds, was
an attempt of other races to imitate the form of skull of a people whose likenesses are found on the monuments of Egypt and of America. It has been shown that this peculiar form of the head was present even in the fœtus of the Peruvian mummies.
Hippocrates tells us that the practice among the Scythians was for the purpose of giving a certain aristocratic distinction.
HEADS FROM PALENQUE.
Amedée Thierry, in his “History of Attila,” says the Huns used it for the same reason; and the same purpose influences the Indians of Oregon.
Dr. Lund, a Swedish naturalist, found in the bone caves of Minas-Geraes, Brazil, ancient human bones associated with the remains of extinct quadrupeds. “These skulls,” says Lund, “show not only the peculiarity of the American race but in an excessive degree, even to the entire disappearance of the forehead.” Sir Robert Schomburgh found on some of the affluents of the Orinoco a tribe known as Frog Indians, whose heads were flattened by Nature, as shown in newly-born children.
In the accompanying plate we show the difference in the conformation of the forehead
OUTLINES OF SKULLS OF DIFFERENT RACES.
in various races. The upper dotted line, A, represents the shape of the European forehead; the next line, B, that of the Australian; the next, C, that of the Mound Builder of the United States; the next, D, that of the Guanche of the Canary Islands; and the next, E, that of a skull from the Inca cemetery of Peru. We have but to compare these lines with the skulls of the Egyptians, Kurds, and the heroic type of heads in the statues of the gods of Greece, to see that there was formerly an ancient race marked by a receding forehead; and that the practice of flattening the skull was probably an attempt to approximate the shape of the head to this standard of an early civilized and dominant people.
Not only do we find the same receding forehead in the skulls of the ancient races of Europe and America, and the same attempt to imitate this natural and peculiar conformation by artificial flattening of the head, but it has been found (see Henry Gillman’s “Ancient Man in Michigan,” “Smithsonian Report,” 1875, p. 242) that the Mound Builders and Peruvians of America, and the Neolithic people of France and the Canary Islands, had alike an extraordinary custom of boring a circular bole in the top of the skulls of their dead, so that the soul might readily pass in and out. More than this, it has been found that in all these ancient populations the skeletons exhibit a remarkable degree of platicnemism, or flattening of the tibiæ or leg bones. (lbid., 1873, p.367.) In this respect the Mound Builders of Michigan were identical with the man of Cro Magnon and the ancient inhabitants of Wales.
The annexed ancient Egyptian heads, copied from the monuments, indicate either that the people of the Nile deformed their heads by pressure upon the front of the skull, or that
there was some race characteristic which gave this appearance to their heads. These heads are all the heads of priests, and therefore represented the aristocratic class.
The first illustration below is taken from a stucco relief
CENTRAL AMERICAN HEAD.
found in a temple at Palenque, Central America. The second is from an Egyptian monument of the time of Rameses IV.
of the royal Inca line: the receding forehead here seems to be natural, and not the result of artificial compression.
Both illustrations at the bottom of the preceding page show the same receding form of the forehead, due to either artificial deformation of the skull or
PERUVIAN INCA SKULL, FROM THE ANCIENT CEMETARY OF PAHACAMAC.
to a common race characteristic.
We must add the fact that the extraordinary practice of deforming the skull was found all over Europe and America to the catalogue of other proofs that the people of both continents were originally united in blood and race. With the couvade, the practice of circumcision, unity of religious beliefs and customs, folk-lore, and alphabetical signs, language and flood legends, we array together a mass of unanswerable proofs of prehistoric identity of race.
The rosette (rodakas in Greek) a motif that was widespread throughout Mesopotamia, Egypt and other ancient civilizations appears as well in many ancient Greek-Mycenaean jewels, among its other decorative uses in architecture and pottery (circa 1500 BC).
Mycenaean rosettes come usually in 6 or 8 or 12 leaves. They were made of gold and were used to decorate cloths for both men and women, sewn directly on them. They were also used in belts or as repeated motifs in necklaces, and as single decorations in earrings and rings.
I believe that the mycenean and minoan rosette is another shape for the sun.
We see this also in mediaval churches in form of the rose window.
Statue of Meryetamun, daughter of Ramses II, c. 1250 BC, located in the Cairo Museum.
J.-C. Poursat, Catalogue des Ivoires Myceniens du Musee National d’Athenes; Les Ivoires Myceniens, Athens, 1997.
One picture: Heraldically opposed sfinxes, Ivory relief. From the “House of Sfinxes”, Mycenae. Ascribed to c. 1300-1200 BC. Illus. 162, Higgins, Minoan and Mycenaean Art. Pl. 97, Taylour, The Mycenaeans.
Geoffrey Keating reports a tradition that the Fomorians, led by Cichol Gricenchos, had arrived two hundred years earlier.
In Irish mythology, Cichol or Cíocal Gricenchos is the earliest-mentioned leader of the Fomorians. His epithet, Gricenchos or Grigenchosach, is obscure. Macalister translates it as “clapperleg”; Comyn as “of withered feet”.O’Donovan leaves it untranslated.
According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he arrived in Ireland with 200 men and 600 women, who subsisted by fishing and fowling for 200 years until the arrival of Partholón, 311 years after the Flood, whose followers were the first to bring animal husbandry, the plough, houses and brewing to Ireland. Ten years later, Partholón defeated Cichol and the Fomorians in the Battle of Mag Itha.
Ireland is said to have been empty for thirty years following the death of Partholon’s people, but Nemed and his followers encountered the Fomorians when they arrived.(? so the Fomorians didnt all die of plague or new ones?)
Nemed or Nimeth (modern spelling: Neimheadh) is a character in medieval Irish mythohistory. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn (compiled in the 11th century), he is the leader of the third people – that is, after the Muintir Cessair and the Muintir Partholóin – to settle in Ireland. His people are referred to as the Muintir Nemid (or Muintir Neimhidh, “people of Nemed”), Clann Nemid (Clann Neimhidh, “offspring of Nemed”) or Nemedians. They are described as arriving 30 years after the Muintir Partholóin had died out. The Nemedians too became extinct and/or had left Ireland.
At this point, Céitinn reports another tradition that the Fomorians were seafarers from the middle east, descended from Ham, son of Noah.
Nemed defeated them in several battles, killing their kings Gann and Sengann, but two new Fomorian leaders arose: Conand son of Faebar, who lived in Conand’s Tower on Tory Island, County Donegal, and Morc son of Dela (note that the first generation of the Fir Bolg were also said to be sons of Dela). It is suggested by John Rhys and R. A. Stewart Macalister that the Fir Bolg are the Fomorians (Fomoire) under another guise.
After Nemed’s death, Conand and Morc enslaved his people and demanded a heavy tribute: two thirds of their children, grain and cattle.
Nemed’s son Fergus Lethderg gathered an army of sixty thousand, rose up against them and destroyed Conand’s Tower, but Morc attacked them with a huge fleet, and there was great slaughter on both sides.
The sea rose over them and drowned most of the survivors: only thirty of Nemed’s people escaped in a single ship, scattering to the other parts of the world.
The next invasion was by the Fir Bolg, who did not encounter the Fomorians. (this can mean the fomorians and fir bolg are the same people.)
The Tuatha Dé Danann, who are usually supposed to have been the gods of the Goidelic Irish, defeated the Fir Bolg.
1. The first Battle of Mag Tuired and took possession of Ireland.
Because their king, Nuada Airgetlám, had lost an arm in the battle and was no longer physically whole, their first king in Ireland was the half-Fomorian Bres.
He was the result of a union between Ériu of the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorian prince Elatha, who had come to her one night by sea on a silver boat.
Both Elatha and Bres are described as very beautiful. However Bres turned out to be a bad king who forced the Tuatha Dé to work as slaves and pay tribute to the Fomorians.
He lost authority when he was satirised for neglecting his kingly duties of hospitality. Nuada was restored to the kingship after his arm was replaced with a working one of silver, but the Tuatha Dé’s oppression by the Fomorians continued.
Bres fled to his father, Elatha, and asked for his help to restore him to the kingship. Elatha refused, on the grounds that he should not seek to gain by foul means what he couldn’t keep by fair. Bres instead turned to Balor, a more warlike Fomorian chief living on Tory Island, and raised an army.
The Tuatha Dé Danann also prepared for war, under another half-Fomorian leader, Lug. His father was Cian of the Tuatha Dé, and his mother was Balor’s daughter Ethniu. This is presented as a dynastic marriage in early texts, but folklore preserves a more elaborate story, reminiscent of the story of Perseus from Greek mythology.
Balor, who had been given a prophecy that he would be killed by his own grandson, locked Ethniu in a glass tower to keep her away from men. But when he stole Cian’s magical cow, Cian got his revenge by gaining entry to the tower, with the help of a druidess called Biróg, and seducing her.
She gave birth to triplets, which Balor ordered drowned. Two of the babies either died or turned into the first seals, but Biróg saved one, Lug, and gave him to Manannán and Tailtiu to foster. As an adult, Lug gained entry to Nuada’s court through his mastery of every art, and was given command over the army.
2. The second Battle of Mag Tuired (second battle of Moytura)was fought between the Fomorians under Balor and the Tuatha Dé under Lug.
Balor killed Nuada with his terrible, poisonous eye that killed all it looked upon. Lug faced his grandfather, but as he was opening his eye Lug shot a sling-stone that drove his eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind. After Balor’s death the Fomorians were defeated and driven into the sea.
Lugh has several magical possessions. He wields an unstoppable fiery spear, a sling stone, and a sword named Fragarach (“the answerer”). He also owns a self-sailing boat named Scuabtuinne (“wave sweeper”), a horse named Enbarr, and a hound named Failinis.
This blog post captures my own research into why they build pyramids worldwide and how these structures / temples are related to each other. I tried to understand why a whole world started building similar structures, ignoring the obvious answer of “its the easiest way to build a tall building” and “these cultures are not related”.
I started looking for a possible deeper meaning behind this worldwide phenomena.
It starts with a first clue, pyra-mid, which translates as fire in the middle. Ben ben was symbolic for “primeval mound”
The word PYRAMID according to Stephen Mehler:
“The word pyramid is derived from the Greek words PYRAMIS and PYRAMIDOS. The meaning of the word Pryamis is obscure and may relate to the shape of a pyramid. The word Pyramidos has been translated as “Fire In The Middle”. In alignment with the indigenous tradition, we use the interpretation “House of Nature, House of Energy” for Per-Neter.”
It is rather interesting that the Egyptian word for pyramid was MR, or MER, awefully close to the Hindu MERU and suMER. SU meaning “good” in sanskrit.
Then I went to browser for certain pyramids and temples in the world. We know the ancients revered the primordial mountain as per Egyptian religion. The “mountain” re-occurs in many religions worldwide.
Quote: “It was given different names in different cultures. The Egyptians knew it as the Primordial Mound, the Israelites as Sinai and Zion, and the Greeks as Olympus and Parnassus. Further afield, the Indians called the divine peak Meru or Sumeru, the Chinese Kun-lun, Sung-shan, or Bu-zhou, the Icelanders Himinbjörg, the Aztec Colhuacan, and the Choctaw Nunne Chaha.” Source
Konorak sun temple, India.
Besides the Meru domes of Indian temples, we even see this mountain shape in Sardinian wells if seen from the air, a “mountain” with a (pole)star on top. (the star constellations and planets are “the gods” on top of the mountain)
*Note the flattened trapezium shaped pyramid shape on top.
Santa Cristina stepwell Sardinia, seen from the air.
I always wondered to the surrounding rings but think it is starting to make sense. Also not the “not perfect pyramid” shape like the largest Egyptian pyramid. Could it actually be a depiction of a volcano?
Many Asian temples are in a moat, like an island. For example Angkor Wat with a mountain like building as temple. The Vimana of Hindu temples representing mount Meru.
There is one very important link researchers and academics worldwide might have missed, which is, the relation to the volcano.
“The pyramid (and later temple mounts) are culturally linked to the volcano worldwide.” – Stijn van den Hoven
Cono de Arita is a volcanic cone that rises unexpectedly in the middle of the salt pan, near the border of Salar de Arizaro, in Argentina
So can we prove pyramids (or temples) are related to volcanos?
Not only is the pyramid a representation of that primordial mount that rises from the sea, water and fire combined, it is also directly related to some of the world largest pyra-mids, so obvious in plane sight as a background to the building but not explicitly mentioned as related to it, as far as I know by anyone. Not in relation to this subject in Meso America and also not in a global relation in different countries worldwide like Bali that it was the volcano that caused the temple or pyramid to be build.
Some pyramids and temples are directly positioned on or near such volcanoes making it a small copy of the large mountain behind it as seen in Mexico AND Bali, an ocean apart, with no cultural links whatsoever according to conventional academic research.
Was it mere coincidence they both framed the volcano? I suspect not.
The Aztecs gave the name Miccaotli Street of the Dead or Calzada de los Muertos in Spanish) to the broad, street-like series of connected plazas in Teotihuacan.
The main buildings are connected by a 130-foot- (40-metre-) wide road, the Street of the Dead (“Calle de los Muertos”), that stretches 1.5 miles (2.4 km); oriented slightly east of true north.
It points directly at the nearby sacred peak of Cerro Gordo, not any mountain, again a volcano..
The Street of the Dead was once erroneously thought to have been lined with tombs, but the low buildings that flank it probably were palace residences.
I do not think the pyramids are the pyramids of the sun and moon. I think they represents the two large volcano’s south-west of Mexico city and that the reason is that the street of the death connects to 1 pyramid is exactly that. Because the volcanoes caused massive death to a pre-civilization.
I noticed that the old Toltec city of Tula was on the other side of Mexico city much closer to the volcano’s and that the newer cities are deliberately further on the other side.
Could Teotihuacan and Cholula be cities that came from Tula
that was abandoned and destroyed by volcanic erruptions?
Is that the true meaning of the pyramid shape? Is that the reason why they mimicked the two mountains as pyramids in Theotihuacan and linked the street of the death directly to 1 pyramid. Let’s carry on to the largest pyramid in Mexico, where the catholic church build a church on top. Check what is behind it..
Perhaps this picture shows it better.. That’s right, a massive volcano.
The great pyramid of Cholula, with as backdrop the volcano it replicates.
The great pyramid of Cholula, Mexico
Another weird find is this. A man made mini volcano. Named “el Volcan”
Quote: “In the 1960s, archaeologists had noted the volcano-like mound and identified it as artificial, but Benfer and his team decided to investigate further.”
The reason for Balis’ temples on the slope of volcanoes or Cholula in front of volcano pre-dates Hinduism and relates to the core of the pyramid culture.
Lempuyang Temple, Bali
Mother Temple gate in Besakih is on the slopes of volcano Mount Agung .
Here the gate of Pura lempuyang temple in Bali. Again a volcano is framed perfectly in its view, identical to the Cholula Pyramid in Meso America. Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a volcano in Bali, Indonesia, south-east of Mt Batur volcano, also in Bali. Gunung Agung strato volcano is the highest point on Bali.
View of Angung volcano Last eruption: 21 November 2017
Elevation: 3,031 m
Prominence: 3,031 m
Translation: Paramount, The Great Mountain
The most important temple on Bali, Pura Besakih, is located high on the slopes of Gunung Agung volcano.
It is no secret Egypt God Ptah was an earlier form of Hephaestus or Vulcan, again the volcano link is obvious.
If this is established we then can ask ourselves why we can see similar cultural links between temples, pyramids since these cultures are not related according to academic scholars and “just the easiest way to build a tall structure” The answer to why pyramids where build, besides, tombs for Pharaohs was never given, nor was any Pharaoh ever found in “their tomb”.
A symbolic memorial tomb however, as message to the future might explain the effort made if millions died in a catastrophic volcanic event in the past.
Besides having shown in my Makara paper clear cultural links across the pacific, here again a interesting similarity appears, both religious constructions, a temple in Bali and a pyramid in Mexico, is clearly linked to the Volcano.. Is this another “coincidence” or does a picture start to appear.
Questions arrise. Why was the worldwide bird cult so important? Why was Vega a vulture, a bird of death and the ‘Pharaohs chicken’? Why we see a global “mount cult”.
I suspect a global volcanic cataclysm occurred in mans history that later gave rise to pyramid monuments worldwide and perhaps the memorial on Easter island as closed to an Atlantic mother continent perhaps, although that is mere speculation. Perhaps future excavations reveal more as there is a lot of soil deposited on the statues and the island as a whole.
Scientist have proven increased volcanic activity occurred due to less pressure on the mantle from melting ice in the last ice age. This would have triggered volcanic eruptions and tsunamis worldwide destroying civilizations and causing world death. A vulture would be the right image for Vega and basis for the bird and pyramid cult worldwide.
The bird on the mountain(Vega, vulture Cadens) and killing people on Mayan Pyramids might be what Mayan priest symbolically re-enacted dressed in bird costumes doing sacrifices. It might be why the priestess of Mu Egypt wore feathers from vultures. Mu the motherland.
It also might be represented by the statues on Easter Island, deliberately placed on a volcanic island to symbolize the destruction of mankind as a warning to the future, intended to be buried by the volcanic ash as a massive memorial and message to future mankind. Massive amounts of soil are covering the huge statues.
Researchers have found charcoal in the peat suggesting the islands vegetation was burned by its residents, I suspect the volcanoes actually did this (and buried the statues) and the statues where intentionally placed on a volcanic island in the pacific as a memorial to a deluge volcanic destruction. Further dating when the statues where placed and by whom and why there are megalithic walls similar to those in south America needs to be done by archaeologist. If we know the statues are so large, how deep does that wall go?
How deep does that wall go since the moais are so large?
This would be the first place I would excavate. Thor Heyerdale also found more walls on Easter Island.
And if statues are covered so deep under sand/ ash what more lies hidden on this island and where these statues intentionally so large to be able to withstand numerous eruptions before fully covered as a message to future mankind? Why did they not dig at the wall to see how deep it goes since only a head of a Moai sticks out there as well?
How long does it take to cover these statues so deep in soil. How many eruptions of the 3 nearby volcanoes or tsunamis? This should be easily answered if we see in which direction the statues have fallen, if it was eruptions or tsunami’s. In any case, The depth of the soil is huge, so what else is hidden on Easter Island..
Monuments rather than tombs or symbolic tombs warning future mankind of the worldwide catastrophe that killed so many. Hence perhaps Pyramids where never tombs yet symbolic tombs and a pending warning to mankind and Easter Island was also such a memorial to testify to such a deluge.
This is is my opinion the true reason why pyramids where build worldwide. Combined with later astronomy to mark a time in man’s history many thousands of years ago.
Obsidian, cinnabar are all related to volcanoes as their pyramids and early gods where.
What if the pyramid was a memorial, a symbolic Tomb of millions, due to worldwide volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and a total blackout of the skies combined with a scorching hole in the ozone layer in a downwards spiral effect. Is this why there are no mummies ever found in old pyramids as they where merely a symbolic “tomb” or memorial in the beginning.
Further more astronomy was practised, the priest dressed in bird feathers on top of pyramids sacrificing people could be an enactment of either their sky god bird / vulture / eagle Vega, killing people. Together with the volcano symbolism or being an re-enactment of their maize god constellation being “sacrificed” on top of the mountain. There is no difference to the Olympian gods on the mountain.
An interesting fact is that the mountain where Noahs’ arks landed, mount Ararat is also a twin peak strato volcano. The story of Noah was plagiarized by the church from older Sumerian and Indian accounts. (flood of Gilgamesh, flood of Manu,Utnapishtim etc https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_myth)
However it does shows a link between a volcano and a flood story. Again two volcanic mountains that look like natural pyramids.
The link of pyramids to the volcanoes as memorials to volcanic eruptions that created a deluge has, as far as I know never been published in this context and deserves further research.
A recent article on national geographic did point out also that pyramids could have been modelled to volcanos.
In general, Sheets said, volcanism was an integral part of ancient Maya life. Some of the temples in the highland Maya cities, for example, mimic sacred volcanoes. “The temple buildings have doorways in the tops, where they burned incense, and the rising smoke was used to carry various messages to ancestor spirits and the deities,” Sheets explained. But whether temples at Tikal—where no volcanoes were visible—and other lowland cities were similarly inspired is unclear.Volcanic eruptions also fit into the Maya worldview that life is full of phenomena that can be either hazards or opportunities, and that human behavior can tip the balance, Sheets said. For the Maya, a smoking volcano wasn’t always a harbinger of doom. Humans could turn its ash into a benefit, such as fertilizer or additives to strengthen pottery clay.
Study leader Tankersley emphasizes that the unpredictable mountains, too, were at the crux of Maya culture. “They built temples in the shapes of volcanoes, and their ceremonies replicate volcanic events,” he said.
“To the Maya, volcanoes were part of life—an essential part of their life.”
One could question if this was only for the Maya, or also for the Balinese, the Egyptians and many other cultures and if this cultural aspect of the volcano was related to a worldwide cataclysmic event instead that made them build pyramids modelled after volcanoes all over the world.
Mayan relief what appears to be an exploding volcano.
Teoberto Maler was an Austrian-born photographer and archaeologist who discovered and photographed a frieze on the main Mayan temple at Tikal, in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, which appeared to depict a drowning man and another escaping from sinking land in a boat, while a volcano erupts in the background. Maler was convinced that this was an illustration of the destruction of Atlantis. Unfortunately, he had the frieze removed to the Berlin Museum where it was destroyed in the bombing of World War II.
In 1939, Robert Stacy-Judd included a photo of the frieze in the book “Atlantis mother of all empires”
This, combined with the other evidence presented and links to volcanoes, might be worth further research and considering the link between volcanoes and pyramids as a deep rooted message to future mankind that was the basis for a cult that came after such a deluge and might have been the basis for a global pyramid and temple mount culture.
A temple mount culture that later had the gods on top in form of constellations and resulted in our modern age “religion” of 1 god, the original message and warning and the reasons of the pyramids and Meru shaped temples, lost in time.
This research was published by Stijn van den Hoven 29 April 2018
This is the last of the surviving photos where you can see the dilapidated and without the top of the pyramid. Good view of the road which took out the building material from the dismantled pyramids.
Today, crowds of French tourists who go to see the pyramids in Egypt, but recently similar structures they might consider at home.
Car interchange at the place where stood the pyramid
The ancient European constructions
The attention of the public and of many researchers, those who are not subject to the constraint of the social systems of their countries, has turned to the search for the archaeological remains that still remain of the ancient European civilization, like many cairns present sporting also a stepped architecture.
The pyramid of Barnenez, in the north of Brittany, was rediscovered in 1850. A pyramid with steps, about 35 meters high and dating back to 4500-3900 BC. JC, which had been used for some time as a stone quarry until the popular protest stopped the destruction
In Italy, for example, they have been found in Lombardy, Campania, Friuli, Sardinia and many others in Sicily.
The large number of discoveries and their architectural complexity place us in front of a very important archaeological case which creates an ideological problem.
There are indeed many cases of archaeological pieces, even large ones that have been destroyed or obscured by the current chronicle, like the ancient “pagan” temples and many menhirs and dolmens, but also as the great megalithic city of Rama , whose gigantic ruins defy time in the Susa Valley, in northern Piedmont.
We can take as an example the inexplicable behavior of the authorities vis-à-vis the safeguarding of these archaeological pieces, citing the case of the Barnenez pyramid, in the north of Brittany. A step pyramid, which is about 35 meters high, dating back to 4500-3900 BC. JC, built with dry stone laying, which includes doors on the sides and rooms and interior corridors. And that is almost similar to those of Güímar, which still exist on the island of Tenerife in the Canaries archipelago in Spain. Just like the pyramid of Monte D’Accoddi in Sardinia, or those of Sicily. All to degrees and built with the laying of dry stones.
Forgotten for a time, the Barnenez pyramid was rediscovered in 1850 following the cleansing of the vegetation that had invaded it and which had revealed the valuable work of a European culture that was able to know the mathematical and astronomical principles .
For the record, the Pyramids Güímar too, which originally were nine, are now only six because the others, considered in 1800 as piles of stones worthless, were destroyed more to the use of the stony material with which they had been built.
One of the pyramids of Güímar, on the island of Tenerife in the Canaries Archipelago in Spain. Originally the pyramids were nine, but today there are only six left since the others were destroyed following the use of the stony material with which they were built
The idea that, on the European continent, only ignorant barbarians and plunderers, incapable of developing a true civilization, will be perpetuated once more.
The pyramid of Monte D’Accoddi in Sardinia. Today it is abandoned like all the other Italian pyramids.
A detailed description of the structure of the “pyramid” of Nice
1800 such as Christian Bouquet
1900, such as Bonaventure Salvetti
The ancestors of Europeans
But who were the European natives of whom we speak and who today represent, beyond any ideological censorship, the cultural and biological roots of the whole population of Europe?
Modern paleontology suggests that Europe several thousand years ago was the object of migrations of peoples from the African continent. At first, 300 000-400 000 thousand years ago, Neanderthal populations arrived and settled on the territory. Since they were skilful builders, they seem to have built forts and megalithic monuments of different kinds that can still be seen today. Subsequently, about 40,000-50,000 years ago, there were other migrations from Africa, the Cro-Magnon populations, the variant of Homo Sapiens Sapiens.
About 35,000 years ago the forests of North Africa began to give way to the desert. The Cro-Magnon populations that had established themselves in this territory and who would later be identified as the Berber people of today, migrated again to Europe. They thus reached, through the Strait of Gibraltar, the South of the Iberian Peninsula, in the zone corresponding at the moment to Andalusia, where they gave birth to new colonies by merging with the culture of Neanderthal which had preceded. In the same period the other populations of Cro-Magnons, who were heading towards the Middle East and the Balkans, reached the coast of Liguria in Italy thus giving life to the Ligurian community.
It seems obvious that all these populations have had the necessary time, over millennia, to create and develop a specific civilization on the European continent. A civilization that, in order to remain stable over time, had to organize and develop the technologies needed to build cities and religious monuments. A civilization that has nothing to envy to that of Egypt and that of the Roman Empire.
A great civilization to which we can attribute all the imposing megalithic monuments that still exist and the great pyramids, obtained by modeling the natural elevations of the land, which can still be admired today. Not to mention the masterpieces of technology she possessed in the field of scientific knowledge, literature, music and art.
A pyramid also in nice, built over the entrance to the grotto Ratapignata was discovered Domenico Rossetti in 1803 (and for some said build at that time)
A strange pyramid is located on the hillside north of Nice and northwest of Falicon. The pyramid is fairly small and now showing the signs of age (the top has been truncated at about 3 m), but the lower part is in good condition. It was discovered in 1804, and was calculated to have been 9 m tall. Its uniqueness and mystery make it worth visiting.
The stone pyramid is built over the opening of the Grotto (Aven) of Ratapignata, on the eastern flank of the ridge. The grotto beneath the pyramid is a karstic cave, called Bauma des Ratapignata in Occitan, or “Cave of the Bats”.
This is one of the very rare pyramids to be found in Europe, and no clear explanation has ever been given for its existence. Among the various theories of its origin, the grandson of the famous archeologist John Ward-Perkins (shown here at the pyramid in 1996) thinks it might have marked the tomb of an ancient chieftain, possibly an exiled Egyptian.
The tale we heard in Falicon some ten years ago (1996) was that the pyramid was built by Roman legionaires, and the 50-meter deep grotto was a temple to the Persian goddess Mithra.
The on-line en.wikipedia.org expands on that, suggesting: “The number of stairs leading into the cave below the pyramid also supposedly corresponds to the 7-level initiation rituals of the cult of Mithras – an eastern religion that was popular with members of the Roman Army during the later Empire.” We met a man on the trail doing a film about the pyramid, who said it had connections with the Templars, also told us it’s one of only two pyramids in France; the other being in the Massif Central. There is said to be a similar pyramid that exists near the middle of Southern France in the Massif Central, a mountainous elevated region which also contains the Auvergne Volcanoes National Park, which contains the Puy de Dôme, the highest volcano in what is called the Chaine des Puys. However, due to the geology of the region, it may be possible that there is a natural feature existing in the latter location (as pictured below) which could resemble a pyramid.
A trio of visitors from California, Willow, Beckey and Bill, had read about the pyramid in connection with the templars, and they thought there were symbols and signs marking the interior. None of us descended down inside to investigate.
A book with information on the pyramid is Sacred Sites of the Knights Templar by John K. Young, Phd.
The pyramid and grotto were discovered (at least for our modern era) in 1803 by one Domenico Rossetti. The Ratapignata Grotto was listed in all the regional tourist guides from the 19th century. In that earlier time, locals rented out ladders to visitors intent on descending into the interior. Now, in October 2007, just over two centuries later, the Ratapignata Grotto has been listed as an official Historical Monument (Monument historique).
Locating the Pyramid
Step 1 is to get to La Vallièra wilderness park, near the Aire de St Michel north of Nice. The Aire de St Michel is at the road junction of the D114 and D214, north of Nice’s Gairaut area and 2 km southwest of Falicon. There’s a bus stop at the Aire de St Michel:
Bus #70, connects with Place Fontaine du Temple at the north of Nice, at Ave du Ray and Bvd de Gorbella / Bvd Comte de Falicon.
Bus #25 connects with Falicon, station J C Bermond.
From the Aire de St Michel the small Chemin de Chateaurenard (also marked with the red-and-white Grande Randonnée signs) goes up the hill about a km to the entrance of the park area. It’s a 15-minute walk, or you can drive up and park along the road. On weekends, the parking places are probably full.
Step 2, from La Vallièra park entrance. The GR5, marked with red and white signs, goes north through the park area, then up onto the Crete de Graus where it heads north to the village of Aspremont.
About 15-20 minutes up the trail, you pass a power pylon, and just after, there’s a ruin of a stone house in the trees. At the far side of the ruin, go right onto a small path (marked with the red-white “X” for Not GR) that angles northeast through the trees. This path comes out on the hillside, and goes north along the flanc of the hill, about 5-10 minutes to the pyramid.
An alternate route is to continue on the GR5 when you pass the stone-house ruin. About 5-10 minutes up the GR, where is passes directly beneath very high power lines, take the tiny path off to the right, over the ridge. This little path angles back down the hillside (southeast) to the pyramid.
Since not extinguished disputes about the date of construction and its purpose. The basic version of temple of the Gallo-Roman period (near nice was the Roman colony of Cemenelum) and the sanctuary of the knights Templar. Now the pyramid is almost completely destroyed.
This is kind of curious since it is extremely close to the big destroyed pyramid of St. Andre. For reference, you clearly see the large intersection at the bottom right that was the site of the large st. Andre pyramid. That large pyramid was accessible via the river from the sea and is close to malta and corsica.
It is constructed above a karstic cave known as the Cave of the Bats (Occitan: Bauma des Ratapignata)
Now the pyramid is being eroded and is in very poor condition. No scientists, no historians or the French government don’t want it.
Inside the grotto Ratapignata
Several ancient pyramids were destroyed, and the remaining useless and almost completely destroyed, even more surprisingly, what was built a modern pyramid La Pertus allegedly built by Ricardo Bofille in 1974-1976.
Perhaps the architect had a hand in the pyramid only decorate the stairs, covered the verge of a stone building on the existing pyramid of awkward construction.
In 70 years the French authorities demolished one of the ancient pyramids in Europe – Saint-andré to make room for the highway!
and in another place, at the same time at the junction of the A9 motorway AP7 erect remake.
There are in France and other pyramids, of course less impressive in size, but they are forgotten, abandoned and almost destroyed.
This above picture is worth gold. It clearly shows a large megalithic base of big stone blocks, which in my opinion are burried in the hill side today.
Pyramid 33 metres tall built on the assurances of historians in the 1st century during the reign of Emperor Vespasian.
The Piri-ries map was composed using an ancient system of cartography that involved the division of a circle from an original multiple of 360 degrees. This fact relates the system to Babylonian science in which the Babylonians had a numbering system based on sixty and on decimals. The Babylonians also had the zodiac, with twelve signs of 30 degrees separation between each. (The twelve-wind system produces a 6×6 grid from divisions of 24 arcs of 15 degrees each – The eight-wind system produces a 4×4 grid from 8 arcs of 22.5 degrees each – The Piri-reis map has 30 arcs of 12 degrees each).
(Extracts from ‘Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings’, By C. Hapgood) – Various writers refer to the use of the twelve-wind system among the ancients. The Greek geographer Timosthenes, an immediate predecessor to Eratosthenes employed it. The later was said to have abandoned it in favour of the eight-wind system, because it was too difficult for mariners.
It is interesting to note that the 8×8 grid (made of the first 64 numbers), in its ‘Magic square’ form, represents Mercury (Hermes, Thoth), which is also the planet ascribed the Pyramids by J. Michell. Each planet associated to a different ‘Ancient wonder of the world’. He quotes the cabbalist Levi who said the following ‘the whole secret of prehistoric science is expressed in the following equation’ referring to the idea that all life is created by the fusion (alchemy) of Mercury (1080) and Sulphur (666) = 1746. This number, used as a circumference, will create a pyramid with exactly the same dimensions of the Great pyramid.
In conclusion, the 8×8 grid that is used in the design of Giza is the same as that used in the construction of ancient navigational charts.
The same grid produces the 12 x 30 degree arcs of the Sumerians, and the oldest maps using this system appear to have centred on Cairo and been made between 13,000 and 4,000 BC. During this time period, Earth was subjected to a 120 metre sea level rise, consisting of three flood phases as explored below. The Sumerians disappeared (along with other cultures), at the end of this time frame.
Definitely on the “go back there” wishlist is Argos with its Mycenean ruins, next to the Latium province of Italy as I didnt have time for the “greek pyramids”. I explored the greek pyramid with google maps, checking if it had a north south alignment (which it didn’t) and the angles and overall shape of it.
It seemingly has a rectangular base and might not yield a true pyramid but that needs further investigation. Its position on a hill and the fact that it could be seen from the see as seen in the attached pictures might definitely be or interest to its intended usage. Apparently one of the passages lined up with orion rising, An astronomical orientation of the long entrance corridor was found related to the rise of Orion’s belt occurring in c. 2000-2400 BC. What also was interesting is, that again, a church was build straight next to it on these premisses, perhaps hiding some other ruins in exact same orientation, which, is weird since a church usually aligns perfectly to cardinal points. Instead, it does align to Mycenean citadel as a way marker when drawn as a line.
In the following year Karl Sester returned to Nemrut Dagi; he was accompanied by archaeologist Otto Puchstein and together they started the first scientific research and excavations.
BOOK: Reisen in Kleinasien und Nordsyrien-ausgeführt im Auftrage der Kgl. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, beschrieben von Karl Humann und Otto Puchstein.
Dörner became interested in Nemrut, and in 1938 he conducted research with the architect R. Naumann. The two young researchers published the results of their investigations under the name of BOOK:“Forschungen in Kommagene” (Research in Commagene)
The Hierothesion of Mount Nemrut, located on one of the important crossing points on the Upper Euphrates valley, was constructed during reign of King Antiochus I, who ruled during the most prominent period of the Commegene Kingdom [163(?) or 80(?)BC – 72 AD]. The kingdom’s boundaries spread from Kahramanmaraş to the west and Malatya and the Taurus Mountains to the north. Today, the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut is located in the town of Kahta within the boundaries of Adıyaman Province.
Spread over an area of 2.6 hectars (26.000m2), the Hierothesion is comprised of a conical tumulus sloped at 30-35 degrees at the center, and three terraces surrounding it on the west, east and north sides, together with processional ways leading to the tumulus from the northeast and the southwest. The highest point of the tumulus is at 2206 m, while its diameter is 145 m. The east and west terraces are alike, however the north terrace is completely different from those two.
In the east and west terraces, there are five limestone god statues with their backs turned to the tumulus, flanked by guardian animals, lions (A and I) and eagles (B and H), on each side. In each of these terraces, the gods situated between the guardian animals are, from left to right: Antiochus (C), Commagene/ Tyche (D), Zeus/ Oromasdes (E), Apollon/ Mithras-Helios-Hermes (F) ve Herakles/ Artagnes-Ares (G).
At the back of the statues, identical in both terraces, is Antiochus’ will (nomos), which is inscribed in ancient Greek, on which the gods are referred to with their Greek and Persian names. Besides the colossal statues in the terraces, there are stelae plinths in front of the altars, situated symmetrically in the east terrace, and along the width of the terrace in the west terrace due to its narrowness.
In the east terrace, there is a square platform, which Goell refers to as the stepped pyramid, but other researchers prefer to call the altar. In the west terrace, there is a series of stelae with dexiosis scenes and the Lion Horoscope, which is assumed to show the date of construction of the tumulus.
The north terrace, situated to the northwest of the tumulus, is like a narrow rectangle and contains sandstone plinths. Next to these plinths lie collapsed stelae which bear no inscriptions or reliefs. There are two gaps in the plinth series of the north terrace, one of which – the one on the west – is interpreted by Goell as the entrance gate to the site from the Processional Way.
Mount Nemrut Tumulus is one of the sites in Turkey inscribed into the UNESCO World Heritage List. The World Heritage List, which started to be made in 1978, currently (2015) includes 1007 monuments/sites from different countries, 197 of them are natural, 31 of them are mixed (natural & cultural) and 779 of which are listed as cultural properties (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/).
Mount Nemrut Tumulus was included on the prestigious UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987 on the basis of criteria I, III and IV, with the reference number 448. Features that ensure Mount Nemrut Tumulus to be listed as a World Heritage are:
“Being an important ensemble of architectural and sculptural monuments bearing witness to the fusion of Persian, Hellenistic and Anatolian traditions of styles; its complex design and colossal scale combined to create a project unequalled in the ancient world; the high technology used which was seen nowhere else in that age”.
The web address http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/448 of the UNESCO World Heritage List presents a short definition of Nemrut and its location with few photographs in the gallery. The short definition given there is shown below:
Turkey Date of Inscription: 1987 Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv) Property: 13850 ha Adıyaman İli
N38 02 11.8 E38 45 49.3 Reference Number: 448
The mausoleum of Antiochus I (69–34 B.C.), who reigned over Commagene, a kingdom founded north of Syria and the Euphrates after the breakup of Alexander’s empire, is one of the most ambitious constructions of the Hellenistic period. The syncretism of its pantheon, and the lineage of its kings, which can be traced back through two sets of legends, Greek and Persian, is evidence of the dual origin of this kingdom’s culture.
Here you can find information and documents on the national and international status of the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut. Related national and international documents and decisions are given below in chronological order (in Turkish).
The Anatolian Kingdom of Commagene, which is not mentioned in ancient sources, did not attract researchers’ attention until the discovery of the cult area (Hierothesion) at Mount Nemrut in 1881. After the discovery of the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut by Karl Sester in 1881, Nemrut and the Commagene Kingdom became a research topic for many scholars and scientists, both Turkish and foreign, followed by excavations and restoration work at Nemrut and publications concerning their results. These studies were compiled in the Nemrut archive established by METU within the context of CNCDP and are presented chronologically below.
1881, Karl Sester and Otto Puchstein: Discovery of the Tumulus
This sacred place (Hierothesion) at Mount Nemrut was first discovered in 1881 by Karl Sester. After this discovery, with the information provided by Sester, the Nemrut Tumulus attracted the attention of German authorities, leading to the first investigation by the archaeologist Otto Puchstein and Karl Sester in 1882.
1882, Osman Hamdi Bey and Osgan Efendi: The First Turkish Team at Nemrut
Osman Hamdi Bey, appointed as the director of Müze-i-Hümayun (Museum of the Ottoman Empire) in 1881, and Osgan Efendi, sculptor and instructor at Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi (School of Fine Arts), were assigned, as part of an Ottoman mission in 1882, to study the monuments of Mount Nemrut and shed light on various questions on this subject. The authors presented the results of their research, which included partial excavations and comparisons with the findings of Puchstein, in the French publication “Le Tumulus de Nemroud Dagh” (1st edition 1883, 2nd edition 1987).
1882, Karl Humann and Otto Puchstein: From Anatolia to North Syria
In June 1882, the same year as Osman Hamdi Bey and Osgan Efendi, Karl Humann and Otto Puchstein travelled to Nemrut to conduct research (Dörner, 1999: 32, 40). The latter two published the results of their research on the Commagene region and archaeological findings in northern Syria in the two volume work entitled “Reisen in Kleinasien und Nordsyrien-ausgeführt im Auftrage der Kgl. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, beschrieben von Karl Humann und Otto Puchstein” (Travels in Anatolia and Northern Syria—An Assignment of the Prussian Royal Academy. Related by: Karl Humann and Otto Puchstein) in 1890, almost 10 years after their field research. These two volumes cover research conducted at Mount Nemrut between 1882 and 1883. We would like to thank Istanbul German Archaeological Institute and Prof. Scott Redford for providing us a copy of this book.
After Humann and Puchstein’s publication in 1890, research concerning Mount Nemrut and Commagene was interrupted for many years. Field research focusing on Mount Nemrut did not recommence until the establishment of the Turkish Republic (1923), even until 1938. However, beginning in 1896, certain researchers did publish their various studies on Antiochus’ Hierothesion (Sanders, 1996: 30-31).
1954-1958 and 1984, Karl F. Dörner at Nemrut
Starting from 1936-37, Dörner became interested in Nemrut, and in 1938 he conducted research with the architect R. Naumann. The two young researchers published the results of their investigations under the name of “Forschungen in Kommagene” (Research in Commagene) in 1939 (Dörner, 1999: 138-149). In 1951, after World War II, Dörner returned to the region. Dörner’s priority was to excavate Arsameia, while his interest Nemrut continued. In the same year, an American team comprising Theresa Goell and Albrecht Goetze arrived at Nemrut. These two groups agreed to carry out collaborative research at Mount Nemrut and Arsameia (Dörner, 1999: 178). Subsequently, Dörner and Goell worked together at Nemrut from 1953 to 1956 uninterruptedly, and for the last time in 1958.
In 1984, certain repairs were implemented at Nemrut by Dörner, a group of German researchers and experts from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. In 1984, Dörner’s (1911-1992) health declined and this was his last active year at Nemrut.
Dörner related his research at Nemrut and Arsameia in various articles and publications. The most important among these was ““Kommagene-Götterthrone und Königsgraber am Euprat–Neue Entdeckungen der Archaologie“ (1981). In 1987, the expanded edition of this work entitled “Der Thron der Götter auf dem Nemrud Dağ” was translated into Turkish and published by the Turkish History Institution (Türk Tarih Vakfı).
1956-1973, Queen of the Mountain: Theresa Goell
Goell (1901-1985) became interested in Mount Nemrut after 1939 and she arrived at Mount Nemrut for the first time in 1947, followed by another visit in 1951 (Sanders, 1996: XXIII, XXIV). She worked with Dörner between 1951-1956; later, in 1958, 1961, 1963, 1964 and 1967 she worked at Nemrut and Dörner’s excavations at Arsameia.
During the first years of her research, Goell focused primarily on excavation and documentation work, while between 1954 and 1956, she carried out excavations in search of Antiochos’ tomb inside the tumulus (Sanders, 1996: 44, 47). Unsuccessful in these attempts, Goell continued with geophysical research at Nemrut in 1961 and Samsat excavations between 1964-1974. In 1973, Goell restored the fire altar but she could not continue working at Nemrut due to her age and various health problems.
Until her death at the age of 84, Goell was able to publish only a few articles about Nemrut. In 1983, she asked Donald H. Sanders to compile the results of her work (Sanders, 1996: XVII). After 13 years of meticulous work, Sanders compiled Goell’s work and prepared a two-volume work in English entitled “Nemrud Dağı:The Hierothesion of Antiochus I of Commagene” published in 1996. This work is the most comprehensive publication on Nemrut to this day.
1958, Ara Güler at Nemrut with a French television
During the filming of a documentary on civilizations by a French television, Ara Güler, with prior knowledge of the existence of the Nemrut Tumulus, suggests that they film the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut, and accompanies them to the tumulus, where he takes his own photographs. News of this visit in 1958 is published by more than 100 arts and news magazines throughout the world, especially in Germany and France. (Kürkçüoğlu, S. S., 2002, http: //www.hezarfen.net/paralax/056sabri.htm).
Prof. Dr. Sencer Şahin Şahin (1939-2014), Dörner’s student, conducted petrographic research at one monument under the guidance of Dr. B. Fitzner from the Aachen Technical University during the first season of field work in 1987. Later, Şahin carried out geophysical research to determine the location of the tomb chamber and worked on the reconstruction and presentation of the site. Şahin and German researchers presented the results of their research at many venues. Another important contribution of Şahin is the translation of the nomos of King Antiochos I into Turkish, which was published in 1998 under the name “Tanrılar Dağı Nemrut / Mountain of the Gods”.
1990, İbrahim Demirel at Nemrut
In 1990, the photographer Ibrahim Demirel travelled to the region and visited Mount Nemrut too. As a result of this visit, Demirel’s archives now contain approximately 250 color slides including photographs of most of the sculptures and their details. The METU-CNCDP team extends many thanks to Mr. Demirel who permitted some of his photographs to be presented in this website.
Publications and documentaries on Nemrut
Publications on Nemrut began to increase toward the 1990’s with special attention from Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları / Archeology and Art Publications directed by Nezih Başgelen. The first publication on Nemrut after the establishment of the Republic was the work of Osman Hamdi Bey and Osgan Efendi in 1883, a French book entitled “Le Tumulus de Nemroud Dagh”, which was reprinted in 1987. This publication has not yet been translated into Turkish.
This book was followed by the translation F.K. Dörner’s second edition of “Der Thron der Götter auf dem Nemrud Dağı” (1987) into Turkish by Vurak Ülkü, which was published by the Turkish History Institution (Türk Tarih Kurumu) with the title “Nemrud Dağı’nın Zirvesinde Tanrıların Tahtları” in 1990.
In 1998, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları also began to publish other books on Nemrut including several written or edited by Nezih Başgelen, such as “Tanrılar Dağı Nemrut / Mountain of the Gods” (1998), “Havadan Nemrut / Nemrut from the Air” (2000) and “Nemrut Dağı, Keşfi, Kazıları, Anıtları / Mount Nemrut, its Discovery, Excavations and Monuments” (2003). Gülcan Acar also edited a book entitled “Nemrud” (2004) which contains her own photographs.
Among these, those most important publications about the history of research at Nemrut include “Tanrılar Dağı Nemrut / Mountain of the Gods” (1998) edited by archaeologist Nezih Başgelen, which contains the Turkish translation of the Nomos and “Havadan Nemrut / Nemrut from the Air” (2000) which documents Nemrut with aerial photographs.
2001-2003, Herman Brijder and Maurice Crijns: Crijns’ passion for Nemrut
Crijns, who became interested in MountNemrut after 1980s, established the International Nemrud Foundation (INF) in 1998. In 2000, Nemrut was inscribed on the “World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites”, a list issued by the World Monuments Fund (WMF) every two years. A year later, WMF declared its support for INF’s Nemrut Project. The same year, INF signed an agreement with Prof. Brijder from the University of Amsterdam, appointing him as project director for Nemrut. In 2001, a team directed by Brijder and Crijns was granted permission for research with the support of INF. Between 2001-03, the team carried out documentation and research in Nemrut. 2001 works, carried out in collaboration with WMF, were published as “Mission Report 2002”. However, after October 2002, WMF officially withdrew from the project. Brijder-Crijns team continued its research at Nemrut between 2002 and 2003, but its permission was cancelled in 2004 by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism based on the decision of the Adana Conservation Council which promulgated a holistic approach to MountNemrut.
Documentaries and virtual simulation based visual material and films
Besides research, excavations and restoration work supervised by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, various independent groups have also produced various publications, documentaries as well as visual material and films on Nemrut based on virtual simulation.
Throne of the Gods Nemrut
This documentary, prepared by director Tolga Örnek in 2000, was sponsored by Türkiye İş Bankası (Türkiye İş Bank), supported by İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası (İstanbul Stock Exchange) and Çalık Holding and produced by Ekip Film. This film, which includes old views from Goell’s archive as well as interviews with researchers such as Donald H. Sanders and Sencer Şahin, stands out as the most comprehensive documentary on MountNemrut. It has received three important awards:
2001 International Film and Video Festival (USA) (First place in History and Biography),
2001 Avşa Film Festival (Documentary, first place),
2002 Torento Film Festival (Rai Television Award).
Three-dimensional views prepared by Learning Sites, Inc.
The film “Tanrıların Tahtı Nemrut” (Throne of the Gods Nemrut) incorporates original visual material to make a virtual simulation of the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut by the American firm Learning Sites Inc. based on Donald H. Sanders’ research on Theresa Goell’s archives. Learning Sites Inc., founded towards the end of the 1980’s in the United States, is a pioneer in applying digital realism to archaeological sites and specializes in creating reliable archaeological visualization for interactive education and research. (http://www.learningsites.com/Frame_layout01.htm).
Hidden Tomb of Antiochus
This documentary, filmed in 2000 by Digital Ranch of California for the American History Channel was first televised in 2001. It was directed by Laura Verklan, with Tufan Turanlı as the cameraman. This film presented Antiochos I and his mausoleum, as well as Arsameia, the CendereBridge and AdıyamanMuseum, together with Zeugma and Şanlıurfa as settlements within the Commagene region. ( http://tv.nytimes.com/show/49845/Hidden-Tomb-of-Antiochus/overview)
A short film presented at the EXPO 2000 Fair
The main theme of the Turkish Pavilion prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Tourism for the EXPO 2000 Fair in Hannover was the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut; however the virtual simulation of Nemrut was not based on any scientific research. The Turkish pavilion was designed and executed by INFOTRON ( http://www.infotron.com.tr/kurumsal.html).
“Queen of the Mountain”
This documentary, directed by Martha Goell Lubell, relates the biography of Theresa Goell. Produced in 2005, it conveys Goell’s rebellion against limitations imposed by her family and the period, her interest in archaeology, followed by her visit to Commagene after the age of 50 and her personal devotion to Nemrut. This film, which includes visual material based on Goell’s archival films and virtual simulations, was shown at the Brattleboro Women’s Films Festival, and received the “best film” award at the Archaeology Channel Film and Video Festival.
Mount NemrutScientific Advisory Committee is established
After the suspension of research at Nemrut in 2004, the Mount Nemrut Scientific Advisory Committee (Nemrut Dağı Bilimsel Danışma Kurulu – NTBDK) was established by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in June 2005, with the aim of guiding future work at Nemrut. The Committee defines future research to be carried out at the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut.
METU’s recommendation for a program concerning Nemrut…
In March 2006, taking into consideration the history and present condition of the Tumulus of Mount Nemrut, the Commagene Conservation Development Program (CNCDP) was prepared by METU, which defined necessary research and field work to be carried out in Nemrut at a macro scale, utilizing new legal devices. Presented to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the CNCDP was approved by the NTBDK on August 15, 2006 and a protocol was signed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and METU, initiating a new phase of research and field work in Nemrut.
Strategically important due to the presence of the Euphrates and Taurus mountain passes, the region between the Euphrates, Tigris and Nile rivers, mostly referred to as the Fertile Crescent and where Commagene Kingdom is located, has been inhabited from the Paleolithic period to the present day (Kökten, 1947: 469; Ataman, 1990: 197-207; Dignas & Filges, 1991: 7). As a region allowing access to the Anatolian Plateau from Northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia, it has always been the target of dominant powers (Strabon, XI, 12.4, 11,14.2; Charlesworth, 1924: 76; Dignas & Filges, 1991: 7).
Emergence of the CommageneKingdom: 163(?)-72 BC
The region, a large part of which remains within the borders of the Province of Adıyaman, was ruled first by the Hittites (1650-1340 BC), later by the Hurri and Mitanni (1300-1200 BC), Late Hittite Principalities (1200-890 BC), Assyrians (850-605 BC) and the Babylonian Kingdom. The Kummuh-Kummuhu Kingdom, established after 1200BC, was considered the founder of the Commagene Kingdom from the 4th century BC onward. The region went under Seleucid rule between 305-63 BC (Appianos, Syria, 55, 62; XI, 8, 48-49). It is thought that, Ptolemaios, rebelling against the Seleucids in 163BC, established the Commagene Kingdom (Diadoros, XXXI, 19a; Sullivan, 1975: 31-42; Sanders, 1996: 19). After Ptolemaios, Samos II (130-100 BC), founder of the capital Samosata (Syme, 1995: 10, 41, 71; Mommsen, 1909: 349) and Mithradates Kallinikos I (c. 100-69 BC) were able to defend their state through political marriages with the Seleucids, in the south, and the Parthians, in the east (Dignas & Filges, 1991: 9). Mithridathes Kallinikos I, related to the Macedonian Alexander the Great on his maternal side and the Persian King Darius on his paternal side, gave his kingdom the name Commagene, meaning “community of genes” in ancient Greek, in reference to the unity of the beliefs, culture and traditions of their eastern and western forefathers (Dörner, 1975: 27; Wagner, 2000: 1).
The Period of King Antiochos I: 69-36 BC
King Antiochos I, who succeeded Mithradates I, elevated the CommageneKingdom to its highest economic and cultural level despite vexing political relations between the Roman and Parthian Empires. The monumental tombs constructed at MountNemrut and in Arsemia are edifices of this period. During this period, the CommageneKingdom, acquiring the title “Friend of the Romans” due to its support for the Roman Consul, attained its widest borders. Commagene, known for its fertile lands during the ancient period, spread until Kahramanmaraş, Göksun and Pınarbaşı to the west and Malatya and the Taurus Mountains to the north, and extended as far as Upper Mesopotamia and the west side of the Upper Euphrates, the Euphrates river to the east, and Nizip and Antakya to the south.
After King Antiochos I
After King Antiochos I, Commagene was ruled by Mithradates II (36-20 BC) and Antiochos III (20 BC-17 AD) and reached its second brilliant period from a military and economic standpoint during the reign of Antiochos Epiphanes (28-72 AD) owing to renewed positive relations with the Roman emperors (Wagner, 1975: 73). However, when in 72 AD Paetus, the governor of Syria, accused King Antiochos IV with treason against the Romans, the lands of the Commagene kingdom were conquered and divided into four parts (Samosata, Caesarea, Germenicae, Perrhe ve Doliche), to be incorporated within the Roman province of Syria (Suetonius, Caligula: 14,3; Dio, LIX: 27, 2f;, 1992: Magie, 1950, Vol. II: 1367).
Following the weakening of Roman dominance in the region in the 5th century AD, Adıyaman and environs fell under Byzantine, Ummayad, Abbasid and Arab rule, and parallel to the arrival of Turks in Anatolia, it was transferred to the Seljuq state (1085-1230). After the Mongol (1243), Mamluq (1277) and Dulkadiroğlu (1354) rules, the region was conquered by the Ottomans in 1521.
The Hierothesion at Mount Nemrut, constructed during the reign of the Commagene King Antiochos I (69-36 BC), was surrounded in antiquity by Melitene (Malatya) to its northwest, Pötürge to the north, Arsameia of the Euphrates (today Gerger) to its east, Samosata (the capital of Commagene) to the south, Perre (Pirin Village of Adıyaman) and Arsemia of Kahta (today known as Old Castle) to the southwest.
The area, approximately 2,6 ha, is composed of a conical tumulus with a 30-35 degree incline and three terraces to its east, west and north. The tumulus is 2206 m in height and 145 m in diameter. In ancient times, this area was accessed by two Sacred Processional Ways from the northeast and southwest, and another road to the north reaching a water source. These roads, identified by Goell with the help of inscribed stelae, can still be observed.
While the east and west terraces were organized in a similar manner, the north terrace differs completely. The level of the east terrace is 11 m higher than the west terrace. At the east terrace, which appears to have been organized symmetrically, on either side of the giant statues resting against the tumulus, are stone plinths with stelae on top as well as the altar which was defined by Goell as a stepped pyramid.
At the foot of the narrower and asymmetrical west terrace, which was widened at its west side with a retaining wall, there are colossal sculptures flanked by stele plinths with altars at the south and west sides. There are four dexiosis (handshake) stelae and a Lion Horoscope at the west terrace. These were transported to the Temporary Restoration Laboratory in 2003.
At the east and west terraces, there are limestone statues of King Antiochos with four gods, and a pair of protective lion and eagle sculptures at each side. These giant sculptures, situated on top of platforms at a higher level, create a monumental effect. The god sculptures are mentioned with their Greek and Persian names, in reference to Commagene’s unifying position between east and west.
In the form of a long, narrow rectangle, the north terrace houses a series of sandstone plinths and stelae without any reliefs or inscriptions. Among the two gaps in the series of bases, the one at the west was interpreted by Goell as an entrance gate to this area from the Sacred Processional Way.
Among the bases of gods’ sculptures at the east and west terraces of Tumulus is an inscription (nomos) with Antiochos’ testament carved with Greek letters. Aside from differences in spelling, both inscriptions are identical in content. The inscription, deciphered by Puchstein in 1882, was erected by Antiochos I (69-36 BC), who linked his lineage to Persian and Macedonian ancestors, so that
“His body, which remained in excellent condition until old age, to rest in peace after his spirit, loved by the gods, is sent to the throne of Zeus-Oromasdes in the sky”
Section IV, Line 205
“WHOEVER SHALL PRESUME TO RESCIND OR TO INJURE OR GUILEFULLY TO MISINTERPRET THE JUST TENOR OF THIS REGULATION OR THE HEROIC HONORS WHICH AN IMMORTAL JUDGEMENT HAS SANCTIONED, HIM THE WRATH OF THE DAEMONS AND OF ALL THE GODS SHALL PURSUE, BOTH HIMSELF AND HIS DESCENDANTS, IRRECONCILABLY, WITH EVERY KIND OF PUNISHMENT”
At the west terrace of the Nemrut Tumulus, a Lion Horoscope was found among sandstone stelae depicting scenes of King Antiochos I shaking hands with the gods (dexiosis). Unnoticed during Puchstein’s visit to Nemrut in 1881, these were discovered by Osman Hamdi Bey in 1882 during his excavations. For many years they remained as found until Dörner placed them at the west terrace in 1984 after reparing them with concrete and epoxy (Sanders, 1996: 163). Deteriorated in time, the stelae were transported to the Temporary Restoration Laboratory in 2003.
Dating works on the Lion Horoscope
The Lion Horoscope, approximately 1.75 m high and 2.40 m wide, is the earliest known Greek horoscope thus far discovered. The Lion’s body is depicted from the right side and its face from the front. There are 19 stars carved on its body and surrounding areas as well as a crescent at its neck. The names of Mars, Mercury and Jupiter are inscribed in Greek letters above the larger three stars on the back of the lion.
After its discovery, the monument attracted the attention of many researchers due to its historical characteristics and originality. They usually linked the date on the horoscope with the exact date for the construction of the tumulus. Hypotheses concerning the date depicted on the Horoscope are given on the table below.