The below article and gallery is a compilation of images and information gathered that is an addition to my Makara research (That paper can be read by clicking here or by quickly glancing at this blogpost) which illustrates there are cultural links between India and the Americas. It elaborates further by looking at the Makara and Figure symbolism.
The man disgorged by a snake
By crusader knights the symbol came to the west via the Visconti Family of Milan, 200 years before the Americas where supposedly “discovered” by Columbus
The symbol of the snake/dragon/Makara devouring man was also known in India and by those channels might have gone to the Saracen knight the Visconti family got their crest from.
But how did this image also ended up in the Americas, so interwoven into their culture? “knowing the myth of Quetzalcoatl” is not what this is. It is a deep rooted cultural image that was know all over the old world and shows relations between these cultures.
Quote Joao Trefego: “The story below is a strong example of this and illustrates how already in the thirteenth century, two hundred years before the discovery of the Americas the Vatican and some “friends of the king / pope” already knew the myth of Quetzalcoatl.
The coat of arms of Visconti House (biscione), housed in the Archbishop’s Palace in Piazza del Duomo in the city of Milan, was created by Ottone Visconti, (1207 – 8.8.1295).
Ottone Visconti was elected archbishop of Milan by Pope Gregory IX, whose name was Tedaldo Visconti (1210-1276).
Gregory IX, before being elected Pope (1271-1276), participated in the Ninth Crusade (1271-1272) to Saint John of Acre in the Holy Land with the future prince King Edward I of England.”
Through my Makara research I made a connection between the Makara and Jonah in my Makara paper. When I then saw the post of the Visconti family crest linking it to quetzalcoatl and american art, I immediately recognized that the man devouring Makara image is also seen in Indian art.
That made me look further in American art and found this particular symbol all over the americas prominently displayed in their culture, buildings and codices.
So if the Makara image alone was not enough to convince people, the combination of the Makara/Snake and the human figure inside further strengthens the case for pacific cultural contact and exchange and furthermore to the sheer importance of this particular symbolism. I hereby extend Joseph Campbells initial observations I also made myself in my Makara paper to Jonah and the fish and link these to India , Sumeria and the Americas.
Quote Joao Trefego: “Joseph Campbell suggested a parallel between the story of Jonah and the epic of Gilgamesh, in which Gilgamesh obtains a plant from the bottom of the sea. In the Book of Jonah a worm (in Hebrew tola’ath, “maggot”) bites the shade-giving plant’s root causing it to wither, while in the epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh plucks his plant from the floor of the sea which he reached by tying stones to his feet. Once he makes it back to the shore, the rejuvenating plant is eaten by a serpent.
Campbell also noted several similarities between the story of Jonah and that of Jason in Greek mythology. The Greek rendering of the name Jonah was Jonas, which differs from Jason only in the order of sounds both os are omegas suggesting that Jason may have been confused with Jonah. Gildas Hamel, drawing on the Book of Jonah and Greco-Romansources — including Greek vases and the accounts of Apollonius of Rhodes, Gaius Valerius Flaccus and Orphic Argonautica identifies a number of shared motifs, including the names of the heroes, the presence of a dove, the idea of “fleeing” like the wind and causing a storm, the attitude of the sailors, the presence of a sea-monster or dragon threatening the hero or swallowing him, and the form and the word used for the “gourd” (kikayon). Hamel takes the view that it was the Hebrew author who reacted to and adapted this mythological material to communicate his own, quite different message. “
The story of the saints teaching the remainder of mankind civilization after a deluge
What is of interest is that the 7 Sapta rishis in India where saved by “a big fish” They where also said to propagate knowledge to man after a deluge.
The exact same story of wise men who thought mankind we find in Sumeria with the 7 apkalpu
in the form of Oannes. Johannes, Jonah, Noah and Jason are close derivatives. Cladded inside “a fish”
These are the wise man that thought sumeria civilization. Yes correct, Sumeria was thought civilization, it did not originate there as modern academics claim.
Other Tree of life symbolism parallels between sumeria and the Mayan world
The Paralels in composition of the above Sumerian image to the Mayan temple of the foliated cross (another name for tree of life or milkyway) are quite striking, including the bird on the top of the tree of life (polestar)
We see the Makaras on the Maya tree of life on the cross bar.
The Makara in the Americas
As earlier pointed in my published researchpaper the relations of the Makara, where the Makara as such was cleared identified across the Americas in many different cultures and the aztec calender. Its upward snout the give away if you know where to look for. More of this in my Makara paper.
Moche Culture Makara
The upward pointed snout of the makara symbolism as seen in this indian depiction.
The “makara” in sumerian art, particularly note the two front legs and the horn like head piece, like a makara.
Xiuhcoatl. Note the Makara upward snout and also the presence of only two front legs, identical to the sumerian image, stele 25 of Izapa and the Aztec calender (Xiuhcoatl, fire serpent or year serpent.)
It is noteworth that https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huitzilopochtli carried an atlatl in the form of the XiuhCoatl
Also that in india, the makara was added to warclubs.
The figure emerging or being eaten by the Makara
Image from Codex Borbonicus, (Aztec Codex)
Image from Codex Telleriano-Remensis (Aztec Codex)
We add to this initial observationof the Makara and its relation to American art, the figure emerging, (or being disgorged) by the Makara/Snake/Dragon as such, as it swops, by being head first or coming out of the snake.
With my current knowledge that the Makara is the milkyway, the 7 rishis sometimes seen as the stars of the big dipper in the middle of the big fish, a story starts to emerge which I will sumarize here below.
- The americas speak over the periodical destruction of mankind.
- The dragon or makara was sometimes seen as fire spitting. (meteorites or volcanoes)
- The 7 rishi or sages story was linked to the stars and milkyway.
- They were saved by ” a big fish” or spared destruction so they could propagate mankind again.
- They thought Sumeria in the form of the apkallu. Known there also imagery of Oannes. The fish cloaked, or emerging from the fish. The fish could be the Makara boats they came in after the deluge.
- The same knowledge reached the americas and the makara big fish image of the milkyway with the figure emerging
- The alfa romeo logo took this image, from the visconti family and added the cross, another symbol for the milkyway
- That is why the christian cross was so familiar to the american civilizations, when thet were invaded. They also reverred the cross. The cross is the ecleptic and a synomym for the skies.
- Varuna, riding the Makara and Chaac the rainwater god are identical. Chaac is a human figure “god” wearing a makara mask. There is a composite image of chaac, showing its build from makaras as pointed out in this article. http://www.stijnvandenhoven.com/ancient-civilizations/chaac-as-makara/
- Makara boats where used in the Indus valley and Khmer civilisation. Because the milkyway big crocodile/fish was so revered, it obviously had big impact om their boats and temples, where we see Chaac, based of the makaras snout. That snout was initialy of an elephant, not present in the Americas. Reed boats from the indus civilization are still seen on Lake Titicaca
- Numerous names in Tiuhanacu are of indian/sanskrit descent. Like Kala for time.
- Indra the Storm god and Varuna god of waters became the later Zeus and Poseidon of the greeks.
- Phoenician boats like the Khmer boats and Greek galleys boasted a Makara design, like the Khmer civilisation, complete with curled up nose. One would only recognise this if one knew the link with the Makara and how this animal looked. This relation, has never been published anywhere before as one need to have made this specific correlations.
- We see the Makara throughout the civilisations of the Americas, The Olmec, the Aztec, The Maya etc etc. This was clear part of ALL their cultures showing their descending relations.
- The snake/crocodile could be simply related to the river, the river could flood, the crocodile a fearsome river animal or its related to the milkyway itself devouring man periodically, like the Sisumara from the Purana clearly identifies the milkyway with the celestial crocodile. also known as the big fish or the dolphin to sages. Its shape can clearly be identified as, a makara or as a dolphin. Early boats where in Makara or dolphin shape.
- The feathered serpent is identical to the Sisumara or Milkway and the peacock composite animal found in india known as Makara. It is also sometimes seen as a tree as in Izapa stele 25 with a crocodile with a foliated tale, symbolizing the tree of life. Stele 25, also has, if you look carefully a figure related to the Makara. His staff with 3 bars is the mastery over the 3 worlds.
That same staff AND the fish symbolism of the sages/oannes is still used today in the form of the fish head mitre of the pope and the 3 bar staff. Therefore Pope Gregory IX, whose name was Tedaldo Visconti (1210-1276) and its relations to this particular story starts to strengthen as well.
Also the double snake staff is of importance with the jewel inside
As that is also nothing new as the opposing snakes or dragons can be seen in the Makara symbolism of indian makara bracelets common in older india.
Let us continue to “the man in the snake symbolism” as also seen above here on the aztec calender, again, with the typical upward coiling elephant Makara snout. Elephants where not present in the Americas.
Could the man in the snake symbol be a symbol that represents the periodical destruction of mankind symbolized as Makara, Chaos devouring man in relation to the Milkyway , The evil serpent in the tree (of life) that chased man out of the “garden of eden” the ideal civilisation at the time, or is it the opposite symbolizing we actualy are born from the milkyway, coming out of the dragon.
Note again the upward makara snout.
We continue to below gallery of images where you can see these similarites between the western Visconti symbolism, stolen form a saracen knight and the relations between India and the Americas for yourself.
The story of the Makara (big fish crocodile) is global. It was used extensively in ship design by the Khmer and Phoenicians and also in the Indus civilziation and the dragon ships of the Vikings. By default related to the milky way, riding the celestial ocean.
Hidden in the Puranas as Sisumara a representation of the milky way and the 7 sages as the big dipper.. That in itself also hides a second story, the story of the 7 sages riding in or saved by the big fish.
The 7 sages that brought civilisation after a deluge, where saved by a great fish. The fish like sages that (re)started the Sumerian civilization. The milky way is a like a river, the river harbours the man eating crocodiles. The river can flood. Are these metaphor’s for a real river flooding or the milky way ending mankind periodically. The devouring of mankind by the celestial crocodile.
There is a deep underlying message to all of this shared by the cultures across the world. History that is now almost lost or not completely known to man how these cultures related and why they share such unique symbolism worldwide and what the symbolism actually ment.
It proves the diffusionist theory by showing deeply rooted similarities in culture across the pacific. and goes against the assumption that civilisations developed independently with similarities, as the Makara is a composite animal not known in nature and these are deep underlying astronomical concepts. To add a figure to the Makara finishes the argument with the isolationist.
There are also clear links to the catholic church, the fish symbolism in the Mitrs, the saints/sages.
The snake (milkyway) in the tree of life (sky) indeed expelled adam and eve out of the garden of eden after they ate from the tree (perhaps the polestar and precession), yet it seems a the story of a lost civilisation and the periodical destruction of civilisation or of the nature of things that time devours all. Is it perhaps the story of the Yuga cycles, that is to vague to answer, but the current catholic church seems to be “the sages of this time” and keepers of the milkyway cross knowledge, as every destruction 7 new sages arrise to teach mankind civilization so this cycle might happen again.
We should investigate these cultural links further and see what the exact message was conveyed to us by indian and american civilizations and take their stories of Yuga cycles and new suns more serious as who are we to think our civilisation will last forever.
This article is only the tip of a very large iceberg of lost world history and lost symbolism carved on Indian and american temples but a very important one to figure out.
Stijn van den Hoven — 26/7/2018
Aditional comments on photos
An extension of my ongoing Makara research, showing its appearance in american cultures. The paper can be read and downloaded here.
This below is an extension that will be added later.
I discovered that the Chaac face is infact also a Makara. It uses 3 Makaras to create a similar 2d and 3d image. Beautifully constructed as such into 1 “face” that adorns the Aztec temples showing again the extreme importance of the Makara in the Aztec culture.
To be continued.
Besides the genius composition of the above artwork, there is a second point of interest. In indian makara bracelets there is a jewel in between the two makaras. If you look closely at the chaac image above, its forward pointing nose can actually be perceived as the jewel between the two Makaras.
I have pointed out before the similarities between indian Makara bracelets and the Aztec calender. The makara as such played a crucial role in meso american civilization.
Another depiction of two makaras facing each other. This time at the site of Quirigua.
Moche Makara Note the curled snout
Due to its composite image of the curled snout this specific images can not be brushed of as jungian archetypes since its not an existing animal but a composite creature.
The Makara is related to the milkyway, which will be explained further in an upcoming book on this very subject.
Other related images for future reference.
I suspect the images on the tiwanaku statues are a representation of ‘Ometecuhtli’.
“(Aztec; Ome, “duality” and Tecuhtli, “Lord”) The Lord of Duality. This is seen as the Androgynous nature of the Spirit. He is represented as being joined with his spouse Omecihuatl (see entry by that name). Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is the Aztec Osiris-Isis, Joseph-Mary, Shiva-Shakti, or Samantabahdra-Samantabahdri. This aspect of the Spirit is seen Kabbalistically within Daath, where divine creativity resides. The conjunction of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is called Ometeotl, the one androgynous spirit.
The dwelling place of Ometeotl is the Omeyocan. The children of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl are the four aspects of the Cosmic Christ: Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl, and Xipetotec. See Omeyocan, Tezcatlipoca.
These might well be the 4 directions.
Wordly conceptual and visual parallels in Greek and Egyptian cultures
Further interesting Parallels are there on the female aspect and its representation, the snakes, with Egypt, representations of Wadjet, as dual snake headed women which in turn is the later female aspect Medusa, the Minoan snake godess and Aztec Coatlicue.
We see the dual headed snake figure also in Egypt and behold also holding the snakes. A representation of Wadjet. The female aspect of Duality.
Quite similar to Viracocha, yet the Egypt version is only the female aspect, while Viracocha is male and female combined.
And the Minoan snake godess, again only female aspect of nature.
Or isis on the Qetesh stele.
The lion below her as Leo is close to virgo, it links her to the Indian Durga, Brittania and other archetypes. (Shiva is male aspect) In modern times this translated to the red and blue Colour in occultism. Shiva and Durga are also seen as a combined God. Duality in 1, the universe. (Virgo/Leo and Otion/Taurus, sungod and moon, male and female etc)
Here below another Egyptian representation of Wadjet, the female aspect , compare it to the tiwanaku figure in the statues left hand. (right for you.) it’s the female aspect of the duality.
The dual snakes is the female aspect of nature.
It is important to understand that sometimes the female aspect is depicted as stand alone and sometimes male and female are in 1 image.
Examples of combined imagery, the two figures in tiwanaku statues hands, viracocha(male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon), young horus (male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon) and the sundisk with the two snakes.
Here below we see from the mochicha culture that predated chavin the disk of sun with the two snakes and priest on top. Again a duality, identical to the Egyptian sundisk in execution and concept.
Stand alone images of the female aspect are Wadjet in human form with two heads, Medusa, Coatlicue.
Now if we look back at the Mochicha culture we see this:
Or, at the Aztec calender stone…
The similarities are obvious. It’s the female aspect of nature.
Hindu godess Kali
So how can these cultures, Greek, mochicha, Aztec, Egyptian, Indian, that have nothing to do with each other come up with identical concepts?
The easiest way out is to blame Jung archetypes.
Yet the visual execution is also very similar. The fanged teeth, the tongue, the dual snake heads, the snakes for female aspect. Shiva wearing the cobra like Egyptian pharaohs the uraeus. It is to much to ignore as ‘mere coincidence.
As mentioned above, the sundisk with two snakes, is not just a random image. It’s not only a sundisk.
It is a representation of the combined dualistic nature of the universe in 1 image.
It is the same concept as Viracocha (sungod) holding two snakes or Horus on top of Wadjet in hatshepsut temple.
Wadjets head just has disapeared as can be seen from steles on same temple. The snake body next to the stairs is still to be seen.
We have seen snakes on balustrades before in other ‘unrelated’ cultures.
To conclude, identical representations of duality span global cultures.
They not only share concept but also execution and visual representations that can not be ignored any longer. The fact that the Tiwanaku culture has visual similarities and cultural duality concepts executed also in Egypt, like mentioned above is worthy of considering the possibilities of a shared ancestry or cultural global contact and exchange by a previous civilization.
ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL.
AN examination of the American monuments shows (see figure on page 269) that the people represented were in the habit of flattening the skull by artificial means. The Greek and Roman writers had mentioned this practice, but it was long totally forgotten by the civilized world, until it was discovered, as an unheard-of wonder, to be the usage among the Carib Islanders, and several Indian tribes in North America. It was afterward found that the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans practised this art: several flattened Peruvian skulls are depicted in Morton’s “Crania Americana.” It is still in use among the Flat-head Indians of the north-western part of the United States.
In 1849 a remarkable memoir appeared from the pen of M. Rathke, showing that similar skulls had been found near Kertsch, in the Crimea, and calling attention to the book of Hippocrates, “De Aeris, Aquis et Locu,” lib. iv., and a passage of Strabo, which speaks of the practice among the Scythians. In 1854 Dr. Fitzinger published a learned memoir on the skulls of the Avars, a branch of the Uralian race of Turks. He shows that the practice of flattening the head had existed from an early date throughout the East, and described an ancient skull, greatly distorted by artificial means, which had lately been found in Lower Austria. Skulls similarly flattened have been found in Switzerland and Savoy. The Huns under Attila had the same practice of flattening the heads. Professor Anders Retzius proved (see “Smithsonian Report,” 1859) that the custom still exists in the south of France, and in parts of Turkey.
[paragraph continues]“Not long since a French physician surprised the world by the fact that nurses in Normandy were still giving the children’s heads a sugar-loaf shape by bandages and a tight cap,
while in Brittany they preferred to press it round. No doubt they are doing so to this day.” (Tylor’s “Anthropology,” p. 241.)
Professor Wilson remarks:
“Trifling as it may appear, it is not without interest to have the fact brought under our notice, by the disclosures of ancient
barrows and cysts, that the same practice of nursing the child and carrying it about, bound to a flat cradle-board, prevailed in Britain and the north of Europe long before the first notices of written history reveal the presence of man beyond the Baltic or the English Channel, and that in all probability the same custom prevailed continuously from the shores of the German Ocean to Behring’s Strait.” (“Smithsonian Report,” 1862, p. 286.)
Dr. L. A. Gosse testifies to the prevalence of the same custom among the Caledonians and Scandinavians in the earliest times; and Dr. Thurman has treated of the same peculiarity among the Anglo-Saxons. Crania Britannica,” chap. iv., p. 38.)
ANCIENT SWISS SKULL.
Here, then, is an extraordinary and unnatural practice which has existed from the highest antiquity, over vast regions of country, on both sides of the Atlantic, and which is perpetuated unto this day in races as widely separated as the Turks, the French, and the Flat-head Indians. Is it possible to explain this except by supposing that it originated from some common centre?
The annexed out represents an ancient Swiss skull, from a cemetery near Lausanne, from a drawing of Frederick Troyon. Compare this with the illustration given on page 271, which represents a Peruvian flat-head, copied from Morton’s “Ethnography and Archæology of the American Aborigines,” 1846. This skull is shockingly distorted. The dotted lines indicate the course of the bandages by which the skull was deformed.
The following heads are from Del Rio’s “Account of Palenque,” copied into Nott and Gliddon’s “Types of Mankind,” p. 440. They show that the receding forehead was a natural characteristic of the ancient people of Central America. The same form of head has been found even in fossil skulls. We may therefore conclude that the skull-flattening, which we find to have been practised in both the Old and New Worlds, was
an attempt of other races to imitate the form of skull of a people whose likenesses are found on the monuments of Egypt and of America. It has been shown that this peculiar form of the head was present even in the fœtus of the Peruvian mummies.
Hippocrates tells us that the practice among the Scythians was for the purpose of giving a certain aristocratic distinction.
Amedée Thierry, in his “History of Attila,” says the Huns used it for the same reason; and the same purpose influences the Indians of Oregon.
Dr. Lund, a Swedish naturalist, found in the bone caves of Minas-Geraes, Brazil, ancient human bones associated with the remains of extinct quadrupeds. “These skulls,” says Lund, “show not only the peculiarity of the American race but in an excessive degree, even to the entire disappearance of the forehead.” Sir Robert Schomburgh found on some of the affluents of the Orinoco a tribe known as Frog Indians, whose heads were flattened by Nature, as shown in newly-born children.
OUTLINES OF SKULLS OF DIFFERENT RACES.
in various races. The upper dotted line, A, represents the shape of the European forehead; the next line, B, that of the Australian; the next, C, that of the Mound Builder of the United States; the next, D, that of the Guanche of the Canary Islands; and the next, E, that of a skull from the Inca cemetery of Peru. We have but to compare these lines with the skulls of the Egyptians, Kurds, and the heroic type of heads in the statues of the gods of Greece, to see that there was formerly an ancient race marked by a receding forehead; and that the practice of flattening the skull was probably an attempt to approximate the shape of the head to this standard of an early civilized and dominant people.
Not only do we find the same receding forehead in the skulls of the ancient races of Europe and America, and the same attempt to imitate this natural and peculiar conformation by artificial flattening of the head, but it has been found (see Henry Gillman’s “Ancient Man in Michigan,” “Smithsonian Report,” 1875, p. 242) that the Mound Builders and Peruvians of America, and the Neolithic people of France and the Canary Islands, had alike an extraordinary custom of boring a circular bole in the top of the skulls of their dead, so that the soul might readily pass in and out. More than this, it has been found that in all these ancient populations the skeletons exhibit a remarkable degree of platicnemism, or flattening of the tibiæ or leg bones. (lbid., 1873, p.367.) In this respect the Mound Builders of Michigan were identical with the man of Cro Magnon and the ancient inhabitants of Wales.
The annexed ancient Egyptian heads, copied from the monuments, indicate either that the people of the Nile deformed their heads by pressure upon the front of the skull, or that
there was some race characteristic which gave this appearance to their heads. These heads are all the heads of priests, and therefore represented the aristocratic class.
CENTRAL AMERICAN HEAD.
found in a temple at Palenque, Central America. The second is from an Egyptian monument of the time of Rameses IV.
The outline drawing on the following page shows the form of the skull
of the royal Inca line: the receding forehead here seems to be natural, and not the result of artificial compression.
PERUVIAN INCA SKULL, FROM THE ANCIENT CEMETARY OF PAHACAMAC.
to a common race characteristic.
We must add the fact that the extraordinary practice of deforming the skull was found all over Europe and America to the catalogue of other proofs that the people of both continents were originally united in blood and race. With the couvade, the practice of circumcision, unity of religious beliefs and customs, folk-lore, and alphabetical signs, language and flood legends, we array together a mass of unanswerable proofs of prehistoric identity of race.
In Irish mythology, Cichol or Cíocal Gricenchos is the earliest-mentioned leader of the Fomorians. His epithet, Gricenchos or Grigenchosach, is obscure. Macalister translates it as “clapperleg”; Comyn as “of withered feet”.O’Donovan leaves it untranslated.
According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he arrived in Ireland with 200 men and 600 women, who subsisted by fishing and fowling for 200 years until the arrival of Partholón, 311 years after the Flood, whose followers were the first to bring animal husbandry, the plough, houses and brewing to Ireland. Ten years later, Partholón defeated Cichol and the Fomorians in the Battle of Mag Itha.
Nemed defeated them in several battles, killing their kings Gann and Sengann, but two new Fomorian leaders arose: Conand son of Faebar, who lived in Conand’s Tower on Tory Island, County Donegal, and Morc son of Dela (note that the first generation of the Fir Bolg were also said to be sons of Dela). It is suggested by John Rhys and R. A. Stewart Macalister that the Fir Bolg are the Fomorians (Fomoire) under another guise.
Lugh has several magical possessions. He wields an unstoppable fiery spear, a sling stone, and a sword named Fragarach (“the answerer”). He also owns a self-sailing boat named Scuabtuinne (“wave sweeper”), a horse named Enbarr, and a hound named Failinis.
part of a series on Celtic mythology
Breast of Anu
Breast shaped hills
Author: Sathiyamurthy K., Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Location: Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu
Camera: Fuji 2000 HD