Fluorescent minerals

https://geology.com/articles/fluorescent-minerals/

Minerals such as Tremolite, Diopside, Norbergite, Wollastonite, Fluorapatite, Willemite, Calcite, Sphalerite, Cleiophane, Franklinite, Chlorophane, Fluorite, Rucks Pit Calcite Clam fossil pieces, Sodalite or Hackmanite,  among others.

NOTE: Typical Blacklight UV lights will NOT display any color.  Also, the intensity of the color will vary depending on the strength of the lamp you have.  I suggest you use a SuperBright II Shortwave lamp, and the Convoy S2+ Longwave UV lamp to view the maximum color output of these rocks.  I do NOT recommend using a “wand” type, or blacklight “flashlight” for these rocks, as they may not show satisfactory color with those inferior lamps.

 

Fluorescent Mineral Books

Collecting Fluorescent Minerals

Two excellent introductory books about fluorescent minerals are:Collecting Fluorescent Minerals andThe World of Fluorescent Minerals, both by Stuart Schneider. These books are written in easy-to-understand language, and each of them has a fantastic collection of color photographs showing fluorescent minerals under normal light and different wavelengths of ultraviolet light. They are great for learning about fluorescent minerals and serve as valuable reference books.

The cruciform tombs of the Zapotec in Mitla

I learned today about these cross tombs, from an article from Dee Olson mentioning Marco M. Vigato and decided to read up on these and make a post on it to see what I could find online on it.
 
Over the past century, the location of this mysterious tomb has apparently been lost.
 
The architectural style appears similar to that of the megalithic tombs of Mitla and vicinity, although on an even grander and more monumental scale.
 
More pictures and a description of similar tombs at Mitla can be found following the link below leading to his blog.
 
http://unchartedruins.blogspot.com/2017/08/the-megalithic-ruins-of-ancient-mexico.html
 
The general workmanship of the stones, including the quality of their cutting, fitting and jointing, makes them one of the most extraordinary testimonies of megalithic architecture in Mesoamerica.
 
This is even more mysterious in a region usually considered as lacking significant vestiges of megalithic or other “cyclopean” construction, which are more frequently associated with the Andean region of Peru and South America. Even more so if one considers that all these structures were allegedly built without the aid of metal tools and with just the most primitive stone implements.
 
Local legends describe these structures as the work of the Gods, a foreign race who came in ancient times to bring civilization to these lands and then vanished. Could this be just another forgotten site of the global megalithic civilization?
Picture the ruined Hacienda Xaaga with tomb below it. (by Marco M. Vigato /pictured)
 
——————————————————————————
 
The best sources on this is this early document
 
 
Which was later revised:
 
 
Also a brief resume of these explorations has been published in the
‘American Anthropologist,’ New Series, Vol. I, No. 2, I899.’ which can be found online here:
 
 
———————————————————————————
 
 
————————————————–
 
A beter / different picture of the above cross tomb. 1924 Print Cruciform Tomb Structure Zapotec Mexico. Authenticity Provided By Seller
Collectible Type original
Grade Rating Near Mint / Very Fine
Entertainment Franchise Original Halftone Print
Entertainment Genre History
Year 1924
Is Autographed No
See less
Additional Product Data
Product Type: Original Halftone Print; Black / White
Grade: Near Mint / Very Fine
Dimensions: Approximately 7 x 5.5 inches; 18 x 14 cm
Authentication: Serial-Numbered Certificate of Authenticity w/ Full Provenance
Packaged in custom sleeve w/ archival black board (great for display, gift-giving, and preservation)
 
 

America Asian Connection 6

  1. India’s connection to Americas

    Baffling Links to Ancient India: History is full of misnomers; one such term is the New World, as applied to the Americas. The landing of Columbus in 1492 undoubtedly created a new life on the continents, but it neither created nor discovered a new world. Many centuries ago Asian migrants had come to the western shore in substantial numbers.
    What if the popular idea that Tibetans and American Indians have much in common in terms of their spiritual culture is largely a result of another historical scenario?

    What if Hindus and Hopis, Advantins and Aztecs, Tibetan Monks and Mayans were part of one world culture – a spiritual one?

    Baron Alexander von Humbolt (1769-1859), an eminent European scholar and anthropologist, was one of the first to postulate the Asiatic origin of the Indian civilizations of the Americas.

    Dr. Robert Heine Geldern anthropologist, has written that: “Those who believe the ancient peoples of Asia were incapable of crossing the ocean have completely lost sight of what the literary sources tell us concerning their ships and their navigation. Many of the peoples of Southeastern Asia had adopted Indian Hindu-Buddhist civilizations. The influences of the Hindu-Buddhist culture of southeast Asia in Mexico and particularly, among the Maya, are incredibly strong, and they have already disturbed some Americanists who don’t like to see them but cannot deny them.” “Ships that could cross the Indian Ocean were able to cross the Pacific too. Moreover, these ships were really larger and probably more sea-worthy than those of Columbus and Magellan.”

    Swami B. V. Tripurari asks, “What mysterious psychological law would have caused Asians, and Americans to both use the umbrella as a sign of royalty, to invent the same games, imagine similar cosmologies, and attribute the same colors to the different directions?”

    http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Pacific.htm

  2. srinivasansharmaMember

    Joined:
    Aug 29, 2005

    Hindu scholars have always claimed that in remotest times, their
    ancestors visited every part of the globe, mapping it accurately, and
    mining gold and copper in such places as Michigan, Colorado, Arizona,
    England, Ireland, Peru, and Bolivia. Known to us as “Indo-Europeans,”
    they lost their grip on the world in about 1500 BC., retreating to
    what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northern India. However, they
    continued to visit the Americas in their large teakwood ships, many of

    them 250 feet long and five- to six- masted, until about 1200 A.D.
    After that, the sectarian fanaticism and territorialism of their
    rel-gious leaders, rebellions among their conquered subjects, constant

    internecine rivalries, and troubles with Moslem invaders forced them
    into isolation.
    No Westerner naively accepts India’s claims of having once
    dominated the world. Right? Well, some of us do.
    In an essay entitled On Egypt from the Ancient Book of the Hindus
    (Asiatic Researchers Vol. III, 1792), British Lt. Colonel Francis
    Wilford gave abundant evidence proving that ancient Indians colonized
    and settled in Egypt. The British explorer John Hanning Speke, who in
    1862 discovered the source of the Nile in Lake Victoria, acknowledged
    that the Egyptians themselves didn’t have the slightest knowledge of
    where the Nile’s source was. However, Lt. Colonel Wilford’s
    description of the Hindu’s intimate acquaintance with ancient Egypt
    led Speke to Ripon Falls, at the edge of Lake Victoria.
    “Isvar was the only g-d in India, the whole of Asia, the southern
    parts of Russia, Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Greece, the whole of
    Europe, the human inhabited places of both Americas – and also in
    England and Ireland.
    In all these lands, Isvar was the reli-ion with slight variations
    in the pronunciation of the word Isvar – . The Isvar re-igion is the
    mother of all rel-gions in the world, including Chri-tianity and
    Islam.” (Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism, by Kuttikhat Purushothama
    Chon; p. 36.)
    While the languages our forefathers spoke thousands of years ago
    would be completely unrecognizable to us now, the names of their
    deities (those that survived to this modern age) may be immediately
    recognizable to their respective modern adherents, such as the
    Chri-tians, J-ws, Moslems, Jains, Buddhists, and Hindus. Names of
    deities tend not to change.

    Hindu scholars have always claimed that in remotest times, their
    ancestors visited every part of the globe, mapping it accurately, and
    mining gold and copper in such places as Michigan, Colorado, Arizona,
    England, Ireland, Peru, and Bolivia. Known to us as “Indo-Europeans,”
    they lost their grip on the world in about 1500 BC., retreating to
    what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northern India. However, they
    continued to visit the Americas in their large teakwood ships, many of

    them 250 feet long and five- to six- masted, until about 1200 A.D.
    After that, the sectarian fanaticism and territorialism of their
    rel-gious leaders, rebellions among their conquered subjects, constant

    internecine rivalries, and troubles with Moslem invaders forced them
    into isolation.
    No Westerner naively accepts India’s claims of having once
    dominated the world. Right? Well, some of us do.
    In an essay entitled On Egypt from the Ancient Book of the Hindus
    (Asiatic Researchers Vol. III, 1792), British Lt. Colonel Francis
    Wilford gave abundant evidence proving that ancient Indians colonized
    and settled in Egypt. The British explorer John Hanning Speke, who in
    1862 discovered the source of the Nile in Lake Victoria, acknowledged
    that the Egyptians themselves didn’t have the slightest knowledge of
    where the Nile’s source was. However, Lt. Colonel Wilford’s
    description of the Hindu’s intimate acquaintance with ancient Egypt
    led Speke to Ripon Falls, at the edge of Lake Victoria.
    “Isvar was the only g-d in India, the whole of Asia, the southern
    parts of Russia, Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Greece, the whole of
    Europe, the human inhabited places of both Americas – and also in
    England and Ireland.
    In all these lands, Isvar was the reli-ion with slight variations
    in the pronunciation of the word Isvar – . The Isvar re-igion is the
    mother of all rel-gions in the world, including Chri-tianity and
    Islam.” (Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism, by Kuttikhat Purushothama
    Chon; p. 36.)
    While the languages our forefathers spoke thousands of years ago
    would be completely unrecognizable to us now, the names of their
    deities (those that survived to this modern age) may be immediately
    recognizable to their respective modern adherents, such as the
    Chri-tians, J-ws, Moslems, Jains, Buddhists, and Hindus. Names of
    deities tend not to change.

    Hindu scholars have always claimed that in remotest times, their
    ancestors visited every part of the globe, mapping it accurately, and
    mining gold and copper in such places as Michigan, Colorado, Arizona,
    England, Ireland, Peru, and Bolivia. Known to us as “Indo-Europeans,”
    they lost their grip on the world in about 1500 BC., retreating to
    what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northern India. However, they
    continued to visit the Americas in their large teakwood ships, many of

    them 250 feet long and five- to six- masted, until about 1200 A.D.
    After that, the sectarian fanaticism and territorialism of their
    rel-gious leaders, rebellions among their conquered subjects, constant

    internecine rivalries, and troubles with Moslem invaders forced them
    into isolation.
    No Westerner naively accepts India’s claims of having once
    dominated the world. Right? Well, some of us do.
    In an essay entitled On Egypt from the Ancient Book of the Hindus
    (Asiatic Researchers Vol. III, 1792), British Lt. Colonel Francis
    Wilford gave abundant evidence proving that ancient Indians colonized
    and settled in Egypt. The British explorer John Hanning Speke, who in
    1862 discovered the source of the Nile in Lake Victoria, acknowledged
    that the Egyptians themselves didn’t have the slightest knowledge of
    where the Nile’s source was. However, Lt. Colonel Wilford’s
    description of the Hindu’s intimate acquaintance with ancient Egypt
    led Speke to Ripon Falls, at the edge of Lake Victoria.
    “Isvar was the only g-d in India, the whole of Asia, the southern
    parts of Russia, Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Greece, the whole of
    Europe, the human inhabited places of both Americas – and also in
    England and Ireland.
    In all these lands, Isvar was the reli-ion with slight variations
    in the pronunciation of the word Isvar – . The Isvar re-igion is the
    mother of all rel-gions in the world, including Chri-tianity and
    Islam.” (Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism, by Kuttikhat Purushothama
    Chon; p. 36.)
    While the languages our forefathers spoke thousands of years ago
    would be completely unrecognizable to us now, the names of their
    deities (those that survived to this modern age) may be immediately
    recognizable to their respective modern adherents, such as the
    Chri-tians, J-ws, Moslems, Jains, Buddhists, and Hindus. Names of
    deities tend not to change.

    http://www.mondovista.com/baboquivari.html
    The O’Odham: Native-Americans With Ancestors From India?
    By Gene D. Matlock, BA, M.A.

The snake/dragon/crocodile who devoured man, cross pacific cultural symbolism

The below article and  gallery is a compilation of images and information gathered that is an addition to my  Makara research (That paper can be read by clicking here or by quickly glancing at this blogpost) which illustrates there are cultural links between India and the Americas. It elaborates further by looking at the Makara and Figure symbolism.

The man disgorged by a snake

By crusader knights the symbol came to the west via the Visconti Family of Milan, 200 years before the Americas where supposedly “discovered” by Columbus

The symbol of the snake/dragon/Makara devouring man was also known in India and by those channels might have gone to the Saracen knight the Visconti family got their crest from.

But how did this image also ended up in the Americas, so interwoven into their culture? “knowing the myth of Quetzalcoatl” is not what this is. It is a deep rooted cultural image that was know all over the old world and shows relations between these cultures.

Quote Joao Trefego: “The story below is a strong example of this and illustrates how already in the thirteenth century, two hundred years before the discovery of the Americas the Vatican and some “friends of the king / pope” already knew the myth of Quetzalcoatl.

The coat of arms of Visconti House (biscione), housed in the Archbishop’s Palace in Piazza del Duomo in the city of Milan, was created by Ottone Visconti, (1207 – 8.8.1295).
Ottone Visconti was elected archbishop of Milan by Pope Gregory IX, whose name was Tedaldo Visconti (1210-1276).
Gregory IX, before being elected Pope (1271-1276), participated in the Ninth Crusade (1271-1272) to Saint John of Acre in the Holy Land with the future prince King Edward I of England.”

Through my Makara research I made a connection between the Makara and Jonah in my Makara paper. When I then saw the post of the Visconti family crest linking it to quetzalcoatl and american art, I immediately recognized that the man devouring Makara image is also seen in Indian art.

That made me look further in American art and found this particular symbol all over the americas prominently displayed in their culture, buildings and codices.

So if the Makara image alone was not enough to convince people, the combination of the Makara/Snake and the human figure inside further strengthens the case for pacific cultural contact and exchange and furthermore to the sheer importance of this particular symbolism. I hereby extend Joseph Campbells initial observations I also made myself in my Makara paper to Jonah and the fish  and link these to India , Sumeria and the Americas.

Quote Joao Trefego: “Joseph Campbell suggested a parallel between the story of Jonah and the epic of Gilgamesh, in which Gilgamesh obtains a plant from the bottom of the sea. In the Book of Jonah a worm (in Hebrew tola’ath, “maggot”) bites the shade-giving plant’s root causing it to wither, while in the epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh plucks his plant from the floor of the sea which he reached by tying stones to his feet. Once he makes it back to the shore, the rejuvenating plant is eaten by a serpent.
Campbell also noted several similarities between the story of Jonah and that of Jason in Greek mythology. The Greek rendering of the name Jonah was Jonas, which differs from Jason only in the order of sounds both os are omegas suggesting that Jason may have been confused with Jonah. Gildas Hamel, drawing on the Book of Jonah and Greco-Romansources — including Greek vases and the accounts of Apollonius of Rhodes, Gaius Valerius Flaccus and Orphic Argonautica identifies a number of shared motifs, including the names of the heroes, the presence of a dove, the idea of “fleeing” like the wind and causing a storm, the attitude of the sailors, the presence of a sea-monster or dragon threatening the hero or swallowing him, and the form and the word used for the “gourd” (kikayon). Hamel takes the view that it was the Hebrew author who reacted to and adapted this mythological material to communicate his own, quite different message. “

The story of the saints teaching the remainder of mankind civilization after a deluge

What is of interest is that the 7 Sapta rishis in India where saved by “a big fish”  They where also said to propagate knowledge to man after a deluge.

The exact same story of wise men who thought mankind we find in Sumeria with the 7 apkalpu

in the form of Oannes. Johannes, Jonah, Noah and Jason are close derivatives. Cladded inside  “a fish”

These are the wise man that thought sumeria civilization. Yes correct, Sumeria was thought civilization, it did not originate there as modern academics claim.

 

Other Tree of life symbolism parallels between sumeria and the Mayan world

The Paralels in composition of the above Sumerian image to the Mayan temple of the foliated cross (another name for tree of life or milkyway) are quite striking, including the bird on the top of the tree of life (polestar)

We see the Makaras on the Maya tree of life on the cross bar.


The Makara in the Americas

As earlier pointed in my published researchpaper the relations of the Makara, where the Makara as such was cleared identified across the Americas in many different cultures and the aztec calender. Its upward snout the give away if you know where to look for. More of this in my Makara paper.

Moche Culture Makara

The upward pointed snout of the makara symbolism as seen in this indian depiction.

The “makara”  in sumerian art, particularly note the two front legs and the horn like head piece, like a makara.

Xiuhcoatl. Note the Makara upward snout and also the presence of only two front legs, identical to the sumerian image, stele 25 of Izapa and the Aztec calender  (Xiuhcoatl, fire serpent or year serpent.)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiuhcoatl

It is noteworth that https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huitzilopochtli carried an atlatl in the form of the XiuhCoatl

 

Also that in india, the makara was added to warclubs.

The figure emerging or being eaten by the Makara

Image from Codex Borbonicus, (Aztec Codex)

Image from Codex Telleriano-Remensis  (Aztec Codex)

 

We add to this initial observationof the Makara and its relation to American art,  the figure emerging, (or being disgorged) by the Makara/Snake/Dragon  as such, as it swops, by being head first or coming out of the snake.

With my current knowledge that the Makara is the milkyway, the 7 rishis sometimes seen as the stars of the big dipper in the middle of the big fish, a story starts to emerge which I will sumarize here below.

  • The americas speak over the periodical destruction of mankind.
  • The dragon or makara was sometimes seen as fire spitting. (meteorites or volcanoes)
  • The 7 rishi or sages story was linked to the stars and milkyway.
  • They were saved by ” a big fish” or spared destruction so they could propagate mankind again.
  • They thought Sumeria in the form of the apkallu. Known there also imagery of Oannes. The fish cloaked, or emerging from the fish. The fish could be the Makara boats they came in after the deluge.
  • The same knowledge reached the americas and the makara big fish image of the milkyway with the figure emerging
  • The alfa romeo logo took this image, from the visconti family and added the cross, another symbol for the milkyway

  • That is why the christian cross was so familiar to the american civilizations,  when thet were invaded. They also reverred the cross. The cross is the ecleptic and a synomym for the skies.
  • Varuna, riding the Makara and Chaac the rainwater god are identical. Chaac is a human figure “god” wearing a makara mask. There is a composite image of chaac, showing its build from makaras as pointed out in this article. http://www.stijnvandenhoven.com/ancient-civilizations/chaac-as-makara/

  • Makara boats where used in the Indus valley and Khmer civilisation. Because the milkyway big crocodile/fish was so revered, it obviously had big impact om their boats and temples, where we see Chaac, based of the makaras snout. That snout was initialy of an elephant, not present in the Americas.  Reed boats from the indus civilization are still seen on Lake Titicaca
  • Numerous names in Tiuhanacu are of indian/sanskrit descent. Like Kala for time.
  • Indra the Storm god and Varuna god of waters became the later Zeus and Poseidon of the greeks.

  • Phoenician boats like the Khmer boats and Greek galleys boasted a Makara design, like the Khmer civilisation, complete with curled up nose. One would only recognise this if one knew the link with the Makara and how this animal looked. This relation, has never been published anywhere before as one need to have made this specific correlations.
  • We see the Makara throughout the civilisations of the Americas, The Olmec, the Aztec, The Maya etc etc. This was clear part of ALL their cultures showing their descending relations.
  • The snake/crocodile could be simply related to the river, the river could flood,  the crocodile a fearsome river animal or its related to the milkyway itself devouring man periodically, like the Sisumara from the Purana clearly identifies the milkyway with the celestial crocodile. also known as the big fish or the dolphin to sages. Its shape can clearly be identified as, a makara or as a dolphin. Early boats where in Makara or dolphin shape.
  • The feathered serpent is identical to the Sisumara or Milkway and the peacock composite animal found in india known as Makara. It is also sometimes seen as a tree as in Izapa stele 25 with a crocodile with a foliated tale, symbolizing the tree of life. Stele 25, also has, if you look carefully a figure related to the Makara. His staff with 3 bars is the mastery over the 3 worlds.

     

That same staff  AND the fish symbolism of the sages/oannes  is still used today in the form of the fish head mitre of the pope and the 3 bar staff. Therefore Pope Gregory IX, whose name was Tedaldo Visconti (1210-1276)  and its relations to this particular story starts to strengthen as well.

 

Also the double snake staff is of importance with the jewel inside

As that is also nothing new as the opposing snakes or dragons can be seen in the Makara symbolism of indian  makara bracelets common in older india.

Let us continue to “the man in the snake symbolism”  as also seen above here on the aztec calender, again, with the typical upward coiling elephant Makara snout. Elephants where not present in the Americas.

Could the man in the snake symbol be a symbol that represents the periodical destruction of mankind symbolized as Makara, Chaos devouring man in relation to the Milkyway , The evil serpent in the tree (of life) that chased man out of the “garden of eden” the ideal civilisation at the time, or is it the opposite symbolizing we actualy are born from the milkyway, coming out of the dragon.

Note again the upward makara snout.

 

 

We continue to below gallery of images where you can see these similarites between the western Visconti symbolism, stolen form a saracen knight and the relations between India and the Americas for yourself.

Conclusion

The story of the Makara (big fish crocodile)  is global. It was used extensively in ship design by the Khmer and Phoenicians and also in the Indus civilziation and the dragon ships of the Vikings. By default related to the milky way, riding the celestial ocean.

Hidden in the Puranas as Sisumara  a representation of the milky way and the 7 sages as the big dipper.. That in itself also hides a second story, the story of the 7 sages riding in or saved by the big fish.

The 7 sages that brought civilisation after a deluge, where saved by a great fish. The fish like sages that (re)started the  Sumerian civilization. The milky way is a like a river, the river harbours the man eating crocodiles. The river can flood. Are these metaphor’s for a real river flooding or the milky way ending mankind periodically. The devouring of mankind by the celestial crocodile.

There is a deep underlying message to all of this shared by the cultures across the world. History that is now almost lost or not completely known to man how these cultures related and why they share such unique symbolism worldwide and what the symbolism actually ment.

It proves the diffusionist theory by showing deeply rooted similarities in culture across the pacific. and  goes against the assumption that civilisations developed independently with similarities, as the Makara is a composite animal not known in nature and these are deep underlying astronomical concepts. To add a figure to the Makara finishes the argument with the isolationist.

There are also clear links to the catholic church, the fish symbolism in the Mitrs, the saints/sages.

The snake  (milkyway)  in the tree of life (sky) indeed expelled adam and eve out of the garden of eden after they ate from the tree (perhaps the polestar and precession), yet it seems a the story of a lost civilisation and the periodical destruction of civilisation or of the nature of things that time devours all. Is it perhaps the story of the Yuga cycles, that is to vague to answer, but the current catholic church seems to be “the sages of this time” and keepers of the milkyway cross knowledge,  as every destruction 7 new sages arrise to teach mankind civilization so this cycle might happen again.

We should investigate these cultural links further and see what the exact message was conveyed to us by indian and american civilizations and take their stories of Yuga cycles and new suns more serious as who are we to think our civilisation will last forever.

This article is only the tip of a very large iceberg of lost world history and lost symbolism carved on Indian and american temples but a very important one to figure out.

Stijn van den Hoven — 26/7/2018

 

Aditional comments on photos

 
The artificer emerges out of the snout of the makara. Fragment in the shape of Asura rising up from the mouth of Makara water monster, carved sandstone, 10th-11th century CE. Quang Nam province, central Vietnam. Decoration exterior of roof corner of Cham temple.
 
A makara disgorging human figures, frequently a warrior, is a recurring theme in the history of Cham art. An early example cornes from the reredos of the Dông Du’o’ng temple (Boisselier 1963 a : Fig. 56). We find it here some two centuries later, where the makara head accentuates the pointed and spiky features, with a row of sharp teeth continued by a row of similarly shaped foliage decorations.
The makara ‘s elephantine nose has been made into a towering curved spike that exactly mimics the animal’s huge fangs. The drapery of the garment and the pointed headgear of the warrior brandishing a weapon, place the composition in the Thu Thiên group of the Chành Lô style.
“Some Remarkable Cham sculptures in American Museums” Natasha Eilenberg, Robert L. Brown
 
A warrior in the jaw of makara in Kiradu temple, Rajasthan. Makara is human, karA ‘crocodile’ signifies khAr ‘blacksmith’.
 
Makara 12th cent. Sandstone
 
Photograph of the Hindu goddess Ganga, the deified Ganges River, atop her mount, the Makara, a mythical crocodile-like underwater creature (who often has an elephant-like trunk). Her left arm rests on a dwarf attendant’s shoulder. In her right hand, she holds a kumbha, or pot of water. A small boy, or gana,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gana
symbolizing youthfulness and life, is shown engaging the makara. From Besnagar, Bhopal State (now part of Madhya Pradesh), India. Date of sculpture: Gupta Period India, 5th or 6th century CE. Photographer: Beglar, Joseph David. Date of photograph: 1875. Now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, United States.
Rebus?
Extreem good contributions might have been made by this indian blogger stating the words used in language are REBUS. Meaning they mean something else. He compare the Makaras to blacksmiths. This is someting to look into further.

Chaac as Makara

An extension of my ongoing Makara research, showing its appearance in  american cultures. The paper can be read and downloaded here.

https://www.academia.edu/34955818/The_Makara_a_clear_link_between_Meso_American_and_Asian_Vedic_cultures

This below is an extension that will be added later.

I discovered that the Chaac face is infact also a Makara. It uses 3 Makaras to create a similar 2d and 3d image. Beautifully constructed as such into 1 “face” that adorns the Aztec temples showing again the extreme importance of the Makara in the Aztec culture.

To be continued.

Besides the genius composition of the above artwork, there is a second point of interest.  In indian makara bracelets there is a jewel in between the two makaras. If you look closely at the chaac image above, its forward pointing nose can actually be perceived as the jewel between the two Makaras.

I have pointed out before the similarities between indian Makara bracelets and the Aztec calender. The makara as such played a crucial role in meso american civilization.

 

Another depiction of two makaras facing each other. This time at the site of Quirigua.

https://uncoveredhistory.com/guatemala/quirigua/quirigua-a-brief-history/

 

Moche Makara Note the curled snout

Due to its composite image of the curled snout this specific images can not be brushed of as jungian archetypes since its not an existing animal but a composite creature.

 

The Makara is related to the milkyway, which will be explained further in an upcoming book on this very subject.

 

 

Other related images for future reference.

America Asia Connection 5

Mirrored Source: https://thegr8wall.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/cultural-similarities-between-the-ancient-hindu-indigenous-civilizations-of-the-americas/

Cultural Similarities between the Ancient Hindu & Indigenous Civilizations of the Americas

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Museo Nacional de Antropología (Ciudad de México)

The parallel between the arts and culture of India and those of the Americas are so numerous and close that it is not possible to attribute them to independent growth.

In 1949, two scholars, Gordon Ekholm and Chaman Lal, systematically compared the Maya, Aztec, Inca, and the North American indigenous civilizations with India and the Hindu-Buddhist oriented countries of South-East Asia. They found signs of Hindu civilization throughout the Americas in art architecture, calendars, astronomy, religious symbols, etc. The zenith of Maya civilization was reached at a time when ancient India had attained an unparalleled cultural peak during the Gupta Period in 320 AD.

Buddhism which originated in India from Hindu philosophical ideas not only spread across to the Far East but also to Mexico. Hence, the cultural influences of South-East Asia in Mexico are very strong. In Cambodia, at the ancient capital Angkor Wat, stories from the Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata have been carved on the walls of temples and palaces. Angkor Wat is a living testimony to the contribution of Indian culture towards the Cambodian Khmer heritage. Similar bas reliefs are found at Borobudur in Indonesia.

Sir Stamford Raffles the British historian, and founder of Singapore as a British colony, expressed a similar view when he wrote: “the great temple of Borobudur in Java might readily be mistaken for a Central American temple.”

It is worth mentioning that the eminent scholar, Miles Poindexter, a former ambassador of the United States to Mexico, in his two-volume 1930s treatise “The Ayar-Incas” called the Maya civilization “unquestionably Hindu.”

There are so many cultural similarities between the Hindu and the Maya civilizations that it makes it very easy to point out towards a common relation. In 1849, the United States Charge d’affaires to Central America, Ephraim George Squier wrote: “A proper examination of these monuments would disclose the fact that in their interior as well as their exterior form and obvious purposes, these buildings (temples in Palenque, Mexico) correspond with great exactness to those of Hindustan (India)…”

Another scholar, Ramon Mena, author of Synthesis of Mexican archaeology for the summer school of the National University, (1924) called the Nahuatl, Zapoteca, and Mayan languages “of Hindu origin.” He went to say, “A deep mystery enfolds the tribes that inhabited the state of Chiapas in the district named Palenque….their writing, and the anthropological type, as well as their personal adornments…their system and style of construction clearly indicate the remotest antiquity…(they) all speak of India and the Orient.” Striking similarity is found between certain Maya and the Hindu mythologies, and their related astronomical interpretation.

In Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu is represented as resting on the serpent, Ananta or Sheshnaga. The eagle, Garuda is his carrier or vehicle. In the Hindu temples dedicated to the worship of Lord Vishnu, both Sheshnaga and Garuda are shown alongside. Sheshnaga represents the water deities while Garuda represents the Vedas and the solar deities. The serpent is of great significance in all the Mesoamerican cultures including the Maya culture too. The Maya Kukulkán or the Aztec Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent god is the combination of Sheshnaga and Garuda.

Both the Hindus and the Maya used similar items in their worship rituals. Royal insignias, systems of government, and practice of religious dance and temple worship all showed remarkable similarities. The Hindu caste system was prevalent in the Maya culture too and in both cultures, the priest class was the retainer of knowledge on religion, astronomy, science, mathematics, etc.

Maya temples and idols were lavishly decorated with gold and precious stones, just like those in India and their divine images were painted in blue. The Maya of Yucatan offered animal sacrifices to the gods in the same way as is done in North India, at the same seasons and determined by the same stars. Maya “scorpion stars” were the same as the constellation Scorpio on Hindu charts. At the Maya site of Uxmal in Yucatan, some phallic structures were discovered which were later removed by the authorities in the late nineteenth century. In Hindu culture, phallic structures are worshipped in the form of Shiva Lingams representing Lord Shiva.

In 1911, William Niven, a renowned mineralogist and archaeologist, discovered ancient ruins buried beneath volcanic ash near Azcapotzalco in the Federal District, just north of Mexico City. Among the many stone tablets recovered from the “Buried City”, there were few which bore pictographs of the sacred Hindu Swastika, the symbol of cyclic time.

Like in India, the umbrella was used as a sign of royalty which is clearly depicted in the Maya art. The game of Pachisi which originated in India somewhere around 500 BC was played even in Mexico by the name of Patolli. Chewing of betel and coca leaves is a common daily habit in both the countries. Maya women pierced their left nostril for inserting jewelled nose rings like Indian women. The practice of astrology and mental telepathy is common among both cultures. The Maya were of peace-loving disposition like the Hindus which allowed both of them to be ruled by Europeans. Last but not the least of the similarities is the cultivation of cotton, practiced since early times in Asia.

When South American cotton was studied, scholars and scientists were thoroughly baffled. After a series of painstaking experiments to determine genetic origin, experts agreed that one parent of the American cotton undoubtedly came from Asia: in other words, from the Indus Valley – the most advanced ancient civilizations which grew in the present-day Pakistan and the north-western parts of India from 3300 BC before suddenly disappearing in 1400 BC.

It has been claimed that even maize, the most Mesoamerican crop, was in use in Asia before Columbus brought it from the Americas. Eleventh century temples in Southern India, where maize was supposedly unknown at the time, house many stone figures which, according to cultural geographers, are shown offering ears of maize to the Gods.  Another common custom is the offering of food to God before eating as an expression of gratitude for the meal provided. Mexican food displays unusual similarities to Indian food. Like the Hindus, the Maya too were primarily vegetarians. The Indian rotis or chappatis and the Mexican tortillas are totally similar in preparation, size and shape.

Maya paintings depict their men folk dressed in white loin cloth wrapped around their waist extending till knee level. Both these styles with the white loin cloth are till today the customary daily wear of the people of South India. Prior to the colonial invention of the wooden whisk called molinillo, hot chocolate was frothed up by pouring it from one cup to another. In South India, the ancient custom of pouring coffee from one cup to another to create foam before it is served, is widely in existence even today and is the essence of South Indian filter coffee.

Ometecuhtli

 

I suspect the images on the tiwanaku statues are ‘Ometecuhtli’.

Quote source: https://gnosticteachings.org/glossary/o/2683-ometecuhtli.html

(Aztec; Ome, “duality” and Tecuhtli, “Lord”) The Lord of Duality. This is seen as the Androgynous nature of the Spirit. He is represented as being joined with his spouse Omecihuatl (see entry by that name). Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is the Aztec Osiris-Isis, Joseph-Mary, Shiva-Shakti, or Samantabahdra-Samantabahdri. This aspect of the Spirit is seen Kabbalistically within Daath, where divine creativity resides. The conjunction of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is called Ometeotl, the one androgynous spirit.

The dwelling place of Ometeotl is the Omeyocan. The children of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl are the four aspects of the Cosmic Christ: Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl, and Xipetotec. See Omeyocan, Tezcatlipoca.

These might well be the 4 directions.

further interesting Parallels are there on the female aspect with Egypt, representations of Wadjet, as dual snake headed women which in turn is the later female aspect Medusa and Minoan snake godess.

The sundisk with two snakes, is not just a random image. It is the same concept as Viracocha (sungod) holding two snakes or, horus on top of Wadjet in hatshepsut temple, also a snake next to stairs. Wadjet head just has disapeared as can be seen from steles at same temple.

Relations of Medusa to Kali and Kirthimukha and KaliMukha.

Observation made by Stijn van den Hoven

KaliMukha, Kirthimukha (temple faces) are identical to the Medusa and Kali imagery and seen in many other cultures as well as a fanged monster, mostly associated with serpents or serpent hair.

In meso american art she is Coatlicue.

Either depicted as a monster above doorways or in temple art.

I suspect this is a metaphor for time itself devouring creation. It later transformed into the Siren symbolism and mother godess symbolism but its origina might be the sun/moon disk with the two snakes as seen in Egypt.

The duality similarly represented in Ancient cultures.

I suspect the images on the Tiwanaku statues are a representation of ‘Ometecuhtli’. Male and female duality combined in 1 statue holding both. Allow me to explain why and what we actualy see here.

Quote: https://gnosticteachings.org/glossary/o/2683-ometecuhtli.html

“(Aztec; Ome, “duality” and Tecuhtli, “Lord”) The Lord of Duality. This is seen as the Androgynous nature of the Spirit. He is represented as being joined with his spouse Omecihuatl (see entry by that name). Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is the Aztec Osiris-Isis, Joseph-Mary, Shiva-Shakti, or Samantabahdra-Samantabahdri. This aspect of the Spirit is seen Kabbalistically within Daath, where divine creativity resides. The conjunction of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl is called Ometeotl, the one androgynous spirit.
The dwelling place of Ometeotl is the Omeyocan. The children of Ometecuhtli-Omecihuatl are the four aspects of the Cosmic Christ: Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl, and Xipetotec. See Omeyocan, Tezcatlipoca.

These might well be the 4 directions.

Wordly conceptual and visual parallels in Greek and Egyptian cultures

Further interesting Parallels are there on the female aspect and its representation, the snakes, with Egypt, representations of Wadjet, as dual snake headed women which in turn is the later female aspect Medusa, the Minoan snake godess and Aztec Coatlicue.

The left figure from us is easily identified by most people as a figure. The right one is a figure to, with two snakes for a head.

We see the dual headed snake figure also in Egypt and behold, also holding snakes like Viracocha. There it is a representation of Wadjet. The female aspect of Duality.

Quite similar to Viracocha, yet the Egypt version is only the female aspect, while Viracocha is male and female combined. Now do you see the left figure on the Tiwanaku statue is this figure with two snakeheads?

Below the figure on the gate of the sun, Viracocha. He is a representation of male (sungod) and female (the snakes) in 1.

The Minoan snake godess is only female aspect of nature but in similar execution of overall ‘design’ .

It also shows on Isis on the Qetesh stele.

The lion below her as Leo is close to virgo, it links her to the Indian Durga, Brittania and other archetypes. (Shiva is male aspect) In modern times this translated to the red and blue Colour in occultism. Shiva and Durga are also seen as a combined God. Duality in 1, the universe. (Virgo/Leo and Otion/Taurus, sungod and moon, male and female etc)

Here below another Egyptian representation of Wadjet, the female aspect , compare it to the tiwanaku figure in the statues left hand. (right for you.) it’s the female aspect of the duality.

The dual snakes is the female aspect of nature.

 

 

It is important to understand that sometimes the female aspect is depicted as stand alone and sometimes male and female are in 1 image.

Examples of combined imagery, the two figures in tiwanaku statues hands, viracocha(male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon), young horus (male/sun) holding snakes (female/moon) and the sundisk with the two snakes.

Here below we see from the mochicha culture that predated chavin the disk of sun with the two snakes and priest on top. Again a duality, identical to the Egyptian sundisk in execution and concept.

Stand alone images of the female aspect are Wadjet in human form with two heads, Medusa, Coatlicue.

Now if we look back at the Mochicha culture we see this:

Or, at the Aztec calender stone…

The similarities are obvious. It’s the female aspect of nature.

Hindu godess Kali

So how can these cultures, Greek, mochicha, Aztec, Egyptian, Indian, that have nothing to do with each other come up with identical concepts?

Medusa was the crone stage of a triple moon godess. All that looked at her ‘turned to stone’ or, slept at night… Then she was ‘defeated’ by the sun solar hero Perseus. The Medusa type we see in many cultures exactly depicted the same.. WHY?

The easiest way out is to blame Jung archetypes.

Yet the visual execution is very similar in all these cultures. The fanged teeth, the tongue, the dual snake heads, the snakes for female aspect.

Shiva wearing the cobra like Egyptian pharaohs the uraeus.

Wadjet was depicted as a cobra. As patron and protector, later Wadjet often was shown coiled upon the head of Ra; in order to act as his protection, this image of her became the uraeus symbol used on the royal crowns as well.

Interesting.. The milky-way reference..

Quote Wikipedia:

“An interpretation of the Milky Way was that it was the primal snake, Wadjet, the protector of Egypt. In this interpretation she was closely associated with Hathor and other early deities among the various aspects of the great mother goddess, including Mut and Naunet. The association with Hathor brought her son Horus into association also. The cult of Ra absorbed most of Horus’s traits and included the protective eye of Wadjet that had shown her association with Hathor.

When identified as the protector of Ra, who was also a sun deity associated with heat and fire, she was sometimes said to be able to send fire onto those who might attack, just as the cobra spits poison into the eyes of its enemies. In this role she was called the Lady of Flame.

As the patron goddess, she was associated with the land and depicted as a snake-headed woman or a snake—usually an Egyptian cobra, a venomous snake common to the region; sometimes she was depicted as a woman with two snake heads and, at other times, a snake with a woman’s head. Her oracle was in the renowned temple in Per-Wadjet that was dedicated to her worship and gave the city its name. This oracle may have been the source for the oracular tradition that spread to Greece from Egypt.

The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. It is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a snake’s head, or as a woman wearing the uraeus. The uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity.”

Source: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wadjet

 

Orion, Shiva nataraja with the milky-way above his head.

 

As mentioned above, the sundisk with two snakes, is not just a random image. It’s not only a sundisk.

It is a representation of the combined dualistic nature of the universe in 1 image.

It is the same concept as Viracocha (sungod) holding two snakes or Horus on top of Wadjet in hatshepsut temple.

Wadjets head just has disapeared as can be seen from steles on same temple. The snake body next to the stairs is still to be seen.

We have seen snakes on balustrades before in other ‘unrelated’ cultures.

To conclude, identical representations of duality span global cultures.

They not only share concept but also execution and visual representations that can not be ignored any longer. The fact that the Tiwanaku culture has visual similarities and cultural duality concepts executed also in Egypt, like mentioned above is worthy of considering the possibilities of a shared ancestry or cultural global contact and exchange by a previous civilization.

The bird and snake, or Hero and snake, is in my opinion the duality represented, male and female, sky (father) and earth(mother), orion and virgo, adam and eve, Shiva and Durga, Garuda and snake symbolism, hero figthing snake etc etc. We also see this symbolism of duality on the mask of King Tut.

For further reading I recommend the article the universal religion.

The universal religion of the world