The stones of clay
Carlos Gamero Esparza. EYE Journal. Lima Peru)
An old archaeological puzzle that has scientists head … how did you get people like the ancient Incas cyclopean stone blocks fit in its monumental buildings, with unsurpassed perfection? Were they perhaps artificial, the prefabricaban or … as some legends say, they knew a secret technique to “soften” and accommodate them at will, as if made of clay?
“Hiram Bingham told him about the existence of a plant with the Incas whose juices softened the stones so they could fit perfectly There are records about the plant, including the early Spanish chroniclers After such a version would check.. One day, camping along a rocky river, he observed a bird standing on a rock that had a leaf in its beak, the bird saw the sheet placed on the stone and pecked. The bird returned the next day. By then he had formed a concavity where it was before the sheet. With this method, the bird created a “cup” to catch and drink the water that dotted the river. Considering the fact that the lichen softens the stone to tie the roots underground, and perhaps considering the continued extinction of this plant, this notion is merely improbable. “Richard Nisbet (1)
The chroniclers of the first half of the sixteenth century were as surprised as captains who carried out the feat of the conquest of Peru. They could not understand how it was that between the joints of the exquisite Inca walls in Cusco could not enter or the edge of a razor. They could not understand how they were set in place the colossal carved stones of Sacsayhuaman, for many military strength, for others a sacred complex, and others … a giant celestial observatory or a riddle … the size of your portent; and left with doubt and perplexity when they entered the Coricancha, the sacred seat of the Inca sun god, where, amazed, not so much for the gold they found his countrymen, but by the perfection of its architectural forms, came to compare the Cusco with Rome or Jerusalem. The stones of the walls appeared to have been welded to each other!
In February 1995 I had the joy of traveling to Cusco, after many years, I finally had that opportunity. My hotel was in the historic city center, near the Plaza de Armas or Plaza Mayor, which the Incas called Huacaypata. Coincidentally, behind the hostel where he was staying, on the Avenida El Sol, he was one of the most emblematic of the ancient capital of the Inca sites, the Church of Santo Domingo. My steps, then took me there until the Coricancha, the mythical Temple of the Sun, whose name in Quechua means “golden fence”, the home of Inti, the principal deity of the Incas. Here the guides explained that Spanish tourists even used dynamite in his attempt to shoot down some stone walls or earthquakes have been able to throw down.
Figure 1. A dawn in the Sun Temple. The rays of the sun slip enhancing the beauty of this sacred place, a corner of the mythical Coricancha.
Lizardo photo Tavera – Argentine Anthropology website.
Despite inclement weather and men, these beautiful paintings of white andesite, blue and red have survived to the shock and amazement of friends and strangers. “Experts do not know how they were raised, but these padded walls seem all in one piece “they explain. And no wonder … the tour guides coax visitors with the grandeur of the empire of the Incas, but can not explain how it was built this temple, like many other monuments of ancient Peru and the world.
Since then, he did not give me the concern about the mystery of Inca stones.
1. The parent Jotcha Lira
For centuries the Andean people’s ability to carve stone and building walls capable of resisting forever remained covered by the mists of myth. Science, in its quest to solve the riddle, it went almost head on the Inca walls and traditional archeology, that that does not support considerations that go beyond its narrow dogmas established, he has borne the brunt, not you had better idea to resort to the hackneyed argument that the stones were carved beak, chisel and hammer, because inconceivable that the Peruvian old has known other technology than the bow and arrow.
The Latin American classical archeology was rocked in 1983 when the Spanish network RTVE television documentary aired on The Other Peru, as part of the series issued by the renowned psychiatrist and researcher Jimenez del Oso. In the program he realized one of the greatest enigmas of ancient Peru and in which the author interviewed an unusual character: Father Jorge Lira.
Spanish journalist has Juanjo Perez (2) , the father Lira a late Peruvian priest, was one of the foremost experts in Andean folklore, authored numerous books and articles and, especially, the first dictionary of Quechua to Castilian. He said character lived in a nearby Cusco town and even beyond Jimenez Bear went to interview him about a disturbing statement: the little father claimed to have discovered the best kept secret of the Incas: a plant substance able to soften the stones.
But this story began much earlier. The legends of many Peruvian pre-Columbian peoples claim that the gods had made them two gifts to the natives so that they could raise colossal architectural works such as Sacsayhuaman (3) or Machu Picchu (4) . Such gifts, according to Father Lira would have been, first, the coca leaf, a powerful anesthetic that enabled workers to resist physical pain and exhaustion -that imagine the effort it must have required the construction of similar monumentos- and the second would have been another plant, amazing properties, mixed with various components, it became the hardest rocks in a pasty and malleable substance.
1a . ¿stones amassed? ¿Moldeadas? Are Carved? What technique? The only certainty is that contemplate this wonderful Inca wall in Cusco raises many questions, as the father was Jorge Lira.
Photo Rutahsa Archaeology portal.
Figure 1b. monumental Enigma . Or the tip of a knife or a pin can penetrate between the joints of these moles of Sacsayhuaman (Cusco). The human figure is dwarfed by a carved cyclopean stones that can weigh hundreds of tons.
Photo Rutahsa Archaeology portal.
“For fourteen years Juanjo Perez writes Father Lira studied the legend of the ancient Andean and finally managed to identify the bush as the plant jotcha after being mixed and processed with other plants and substances, was able to convert clay stone. “The ancient Indians dominated the technique of mass Lira says the father in one of his articles-softening the stone reduced to a soft dough that could shape easily.”
“The priest continues: Perez conducted several experiments with jotcha bush and came to get a rock solid soften up almost liquefied. However, he failed to return to harden, so he considered his experiment as a failure. But despite the partial failure, the father Lira did manage to show that the technique of softening possible. So the assemblies surprising some of the huge rocks that make up the walls of Sacsayhuaman or other pre-Columbian fortresses “would be explained.
1.2. “People of the Earth”
But the resonance of the legend of the grass softens the stone seems much stronger rumble, curiously, among indigenous peoples who still live far to the south of Peru. Among the central regions of Argentina and Chile from the Atlantic to the Pacific, it is extending what was once the territory Mapuche (5) , whose last representatives have been confined in remote communities in the Patagonia Argentina and southern Chile where there are still traditions . Mapuche “people still feel the earth “ (6) , che = people mapu = earth, what is meant by the term that identifies them in his native tongue.
2 . People as one . The Mapuche managed to maintain its independence and its ancient culture preserved despite the influence of the West. This photo of a typical Mapuche family in southern Patagonia, was taken in the late nineteenth century.
Mapuche image obtained Aukanawel website.
Among the Mapuche (7) runs a strange legend, this time Pitiwe bird, a bird with curious customs. The portal for disseminating the work of the noted Argentine anthropologist Mapuche, Aukanaw (8) , this author has in its territory inhabited by a woodpecker who keeps a deep secret. “he writes Aukanaw- Secret jealously shares with” renil “(Mapuche scholars and priests): the plant that dissolved the stone and iron” This bird call Mapuche P’chiu, Pitu or Pitiwe;. it is also known by Pythian, Pito or Pitihue (9) . Altiplano Aymaras call Yarakaka and Quechua: Akkakllu. Its scientific name is Colaptus pitius, and classified in the order of fish-like, the Picidae family, which brings together about 30 species in Argentina, 4 in Chile and 2 in Peru, one of them the Andean Flicker, a kind of woodpecker adapted to extreme climates and considered a very poor choice and endangered bird in the huge contingent of this Andean country.
The Pitiwe is a carpenter of a similar size of a pigeon bird, that is, about 30 cm. It has a front, crown and nape gray slate; and sides of your face and throat tawny. Bars brown and yellowish brown mark above his body, while below is a dirty white with brown stripes. The back and abdomen are yellowish and has yellow iris eyes and black tail. It lives in the mountains, forests and bushes; at the foot of wooded hills and some fields, but flees exotic forest trees. Their diet consists of insects that inhabit the indigenous trees and build their nests in hollow trees. “Examine the log Aukanaw- writes, gives several pecks putting the ear to feel the movements of the hidden bugs and if deemed appropriate swooping on its prey.”
| 2a . Allegory Pitiwe Mapuche of a bird.
Illustration Aukanawel portal.
“It is a climbing bird that nests continues the author from the Huasco Valley to the Pacific Llanquihue, Argentina and the Andean Patagonian region Mapuche Your name, names derived creole comes from high beep emitted. This Mapuche beep sounds heard clearly as:
In September, when the mating season, several males court one female. No struggle, but they open the fantail and wander contorneándose, ruffling feathers in black crown of the neck. The female chooses its preferred a cuddle, and others go in search of better luck. “Formerly in Chile continues: Aukanaw-, Creole scarecrows boys hired to not let these birds roost in the fields, especially when the Wheat was new, although the Mapuche gladly appreciate your flesh. “
This bird feeds not only the most incredible legends and magical fantasies, but omens and superstitions, such as ensuring that if a Pitiwe stands on a tree and sings for three or four days, it is considered announcement of death for patients a neighboring house. In Cantín-Chiloe, another superstition says that when he cries near a house, announced visit of a person who comes first. In Chile Pitiwe it called “small and skinny children, and” apitihuado “is to feel with a heavy heart, dejected” -apunta Aukanaw.
“Among the williche of San Juan de la Costa says Viviana -we Lemui- when Pitiwe comes flying from far away and comes to rest in a house. It is a sign from far away visit people also said that, when one arrives Suddenly visit are amazed and say:
“Why not send your Pitiwe?”
When it comes to mourn Pitiwe near a house is a sign that the family will die soon, likewise, when the Pitiwe goes crying in the night, in front of a house, soon to die a member of the family.
In the Mapuche medicine and Creole popular figure as a remedy their language. This body is effective to speak the buses early and clearly, and that end is given to roast languages (Cantín). Also Pitiwe broth is used as galactogogue (increases lactation in mothers). “
1.2.1. The wonderful plant
The Mapuche say the Pitiwe is a very smart bird but also very discreet about his relationship with some grass that only he knows and whose properties have puzzled archeology long. In Talagante (southern Argentina) runs flown that if a stone obstructs an Pitiwe him entry to its nest, which has built into the trunk of a tree or a hole in a rock face, you go looking for a grass and rubbed her dissolving the stone and destroy the plant juices.
“Diego de Rosales Aukanaw- ‘says in his book:” General History of the Kingdom of Chile “describing medicinal plants Mapuche speaks of an herb called Pito which is the rarest found throughout the world and has great medicinal value . He says that this plant, small in size and growing close to the ground, named after a bird called the Mapuche Pito because eating plant. The Spaniards gave the name Woodpecker. The plant spray dissolves iron.
“Some prisoners have used this property of the plant to flee the prison.
“There are other woodpeckers, which they call: Pito, the body of a thrush: they are painted black, white and burilado and they called yerba del Pitu was referred to the grass, because they use more of it than the other birds.
“They have such a strong peak, breaking, and scuttling any tree, so to take and eat the worms, which are bred in his gut, like to build their nests, opening a concavity in staying with his family.
“They have become famous for the grass, found that natural instinct, that it be broken, and the iron flakes, that there have been many experiences and knowledge acquired with remarkable skill.
“For warning when they take their young and eating out to find them, they close them with an iron door nest those who want to experience the virtue of yerba del Pito, and reaching the woodpecker, and finding the nest closed and their chicks chirp inside and can not get in, and immediately scrambles to find the grass, which they call: pitu, and rubbing her plate, the break, and rolled like paper, which is the rare virtues of herbs known and wonderful instinct of this bird. “
| Figure 3. Father Diego de Rosales.
Chilean portal Icarito illustration.
” Oreste Plath (10) in his classic book “The Language of Birds Chilean” notes the following:
“Botanical analyze the plant kechuca (Note 1) , which produces a juice that makes gelatin stones. abounds there in Peru, Cuzco, above 4,500 meters. “
“A drawing on a huaco continues: Aukanaw-, that is, the repetition of a twig plotted in clay pitchers led the anthropologist to discover that the kechuca was jakkacllopito branch carrying the bird, which nests in small hollows rocks and gives shape to its nest with this herb, which heat the body produce a secretion that is strong excavator to . (Note 2)
And there is another plant called the punco-punco, (Pinko-pinko [Ephedra Andean] ?. Note Aukanaw ) (Note 3) to which the power to dissolve stones, which grows above 5000 meters is also credited. It looks like the reed. Animals that eat it or confuse it with the reed to swell and soften your bones to become an amorphous mass.
Anthropology tell if the great temples of the empire, its giant stones were smoothed with these pastes or juices that allowed assemblies and adjustments; and researchers of botany and medicine which reducing employment report, smelter, will the future drug. “
“Let us note other interesting references:
There are in Bolivia, the museum (Archaeology – N. VA) of Cochabamba, “mingled stones”. That is, generally granitic rocks, which the Incas could, by compression, print the imprint of his hands or his feet, as if the granite had been as soft as butter . (11)
Such impressions are in the rocky mountains of Peru and Tahiti where, according to tradition, the god Hiro, had placed his foot.
In the Mapuche tradition and sacred Mareupuantü werken (messengers) they have left their footprints on the stone in many places, for example in the “Holy Stone” (setting purple, dept Norkin, neuken.); in the river valley of Uco (Mendoza), etc., etc. (…)
Another phenomenon in correlation with the precedent is of huge stone blocks that form the walls of the fortified city of the Incas, mainly Saksawaman near Cuzco.
These blocks are so wisely carved and fitted together, sometimes with beads, which are assembled exactly one another, which suggests that the builders did not carved stone, but chemically treated so that it can then kneaded like clay.
In June 1967 it was known that a Peruvian Catholic priest (see Chapter 1), Jorge Lira, had discovered the procedure of the Incas, which consisted of a grass juice can turn that hard material malleable substance at will.
Lira had conducted successful experiments in the extracted stones macerating liquid from the wonderful plant, plant from which the name is not yet known.
In Paris some years ago ago he resided one pathological liar, or phony, called Beltran Garcia who used the pseudonym “Gregori B.” and claimed to be a descendant of Garcilaso de la Vega and lead the “Sol Inca religion.” This guy happens to be the possessor of the secret of the plant, but with three varieties of vegetables.
They are exciting applications that used the old Mapuche give this little plant, and especially for its medicinal purposes. The ability to temporarily soften the bone matter, has unsuspected possibilities in the treatment of fractures very common, especially cranial, in pre-Columbian fighting.
A mystery unfolds longer mystery and therefore loses its charm, we said too …
These secrets are friends simple yet spirits are elusive to modern minds complicated.
So friend if you want to know more about this herb, and if your ears are ready to hear the voice of the Nuke Mapu (Mother Earth), please ask your guardian, the wise bird Pitiwe, and he knows answer with his usual clarity:
Pitiwe! Pitiwe! “
And bunting, red … the story is over …
2. On the trail of stones softeners
On the heights of Peru, tanning farmers for generations speak of a mysterious herb native to this country (Note 4) and a bird they call Pito. While ornithologists have identified a woodpecker receiving such denomination does not only in Peru but also in Bolivia and Chile, botanists have not had the same luck with this enigmatic plant, hitherto unknown to science.
But the men of the Peruvian Andes insist that there is a herb branches and red flowers growing among Puna (5) and the eastern jungles and was used by the Incas to soften the stones. According to them, their ancestors, great observers of nature, they discovered that the bird called Pito used “grass Pitu” to prepare their nests on rock faces, whose sap “melted” the stones and into round holes in the high forest ( Note 5) .
Figure 4 . The highlands in Puno. A typical landscape of the high Andean region. This photo was taken by a Swedish tourist who visited Peru.
Photo obtained from personal Web Hot.ee (Sweden).
Figure 5 . In this map of Peru can appreciate the call Puna, high the vast territory that crosses the country from north to south.
Illustration of The National Museum of Natural History (Washington).
2.1. Fawcett 1 Exploring
In 1954, Brian Fawcett (12) , youngest son of famous British Colonel Percy H. Fawcett (1867-1925), decided to publish a work of his illustrious father, who was lost without a trace in the jungles of Mato Grosso (Brazil) when I was looking for El Dorado. Colonel Fawcett became famous in the early twentieth century for his expeditions to remote regions of South America, where traveled constantly, obsessed by the golden legends of the Incas, as Paititi, the mythical lost city that could never reach but I was sure existed.
As a result of these Amazonian journeys, Fawcett founded the National Geographic Royal Society of London, today a prestigious international organization of geographical research and scientific dissemination, and published hundreds of articles and books travel adventures outlined by unexplored land. Among these, his last work, Exploration Fawcett, with stories, until then unpublished, plus comments and testimonials about scientific explorations in South America, a fascinating content that became a true “best seller” during the 50s 60.
| 6 . Home of the book where Percy H. Fawcett recounts his adventures by South American soil, in one of his many reissues. At the top you can see a portrait of the author with his military beanie.
Hall illustration American History.
In this book, Percy Fawcett makes a detailed memorial of his adventures in the most remote jungles of the world. Their findings not only convinced him of the existence of yet unknown civilizations in the depths of the Amazon forest, but also of a lost knowledge and the fact that the Incas were not the first to know the technique to soften the stones, nor the authors of many architectural wonders that dot the entire Andean geography. In this book they are drawn some paragraphs that are a real surprise.
“The Incas inherited the strengths and cities built by a previous race and ruin restored without much difficulty convinced Fawcett writes, recalling his travels in Peru. They built with stone in the regions where this was the most suitable material , whereas for the coastal belt they generally used the adobe Old builders adopted the same and incredible joints that are characteristic of the oldest megalithic buildings, but the Incas made no effort to use the big stone, previously amassed by her. predecessors. I heard that the Incas inherited their technique and embedded stones through a liquid that softened the surfaces to be joined to the consistency of clay. “
“¡yo no lo creo!” – dijo un amigo que había sido miembro de la Expedición peruana de Yale que descubrió Machu Picchu en 1911—.
“Yo he visto las canteras dónde estas piedras estaban cortadas -insistió-. Yo los he visto en todas las fases de preparación, y puedo asegurarlo, las superficies fueron trabajadas a mano y nada más!”
“Pero, otro amigo mío me contó la siguiente historia:
“Hace algunos años, cuando yo estaba trabajando en el campamento minero de Cerro de Pasco (un lugar a 14.000 pies (es decir, a 4.000 metros de altitud sobre el nivel del mar. N. de VA) , en los Andes del Perú Central), yo salí un domingo del campamento, con otros Gringos, para visitar algún viejo cementerio inca o Preinca, con la intención de ver si podíamos encontrar algo de valor. Tomamos la carretera a este lugar, y llevamos, claro, unas botellas de pisco y cerveza; y un peón, para que nos ayude a excavar en el cementerio.
Después de almorzar llegamos al camposanto, y el peón empezó a abrir algunas tumbas que parecían estar intactas. Trabajamos difícilmente, y aprovechábamos cada ocasión para tomar un trago. Yo no bebo, pero otros lo hicieron, sobre todo un muchacho que comenzó a beber demasiado pisco hasta emborracharse. Pero a pesar de tanto esfuerzo, sólo encontramos una vasija de barro, como de un cuarto de galón de capacidad, con un líquido espeso dentro de él.
“¡Yo apuesto la chicha!” -dijo el bebedor, totalmente fuera de sí—. “¡Lo probamos a ver qué clase de cosa bebió el inca! “
“Probablemente nos envenenemos si lo hacemos” –observó otro—.
“¡Entonces permitan que lo pruebe el peón!” -exclamó el borracho—.
Entonces rompieron el sello y sacaron el tapón de la vasija, olfatearon el contenido y llamaron al peón para que pruebe el misterioso líquido.
“Tome un trago de esta chicha” -pidió el borracho-. El peón tomó la vasija, dudó, y entonces, con el miedo pintado en su cara, lo empujó en las manos del borracho y retrocedió.
“No, no, señor” –murmuró—. “Eso no”. “¡Eso no es ninguna chicha!” -exclamó-. Entonces, el peón dio media vuelta y escapó.
El borracho puso la vasija sobre una piedra plana y corrió tras el peón. “¡Venga muchacho, agárrenlo!” –gritó—. Atrapamos al desgraciado hombre y lo llevamos a rastras de regreso; y de nuevo le exigimos que bebiera unos tragos de la vasija.
Pero el peón se enojó y en su resistencia todos forcejeamos violentamente con él, y en la pelea la vasija cayó al suelo, rompiéndose en mil pedazos. Y su contenido se derramó y formó un charco encima de la piedra plana.
Cada uno se rió. Era como un gran chiste, pero el esfuerzo de la excavación de la tumba nos había dejado exhaustos y sedientos. Y ellos fueron al saco dónde tenían guardadas las botellas de cerveza. Y comenzaron a beber.
Aproximadamente diez minutos después, yo me agaché sobre la piedra plana y por accidente examiné el charco del líquido derramado. Parecía que había más líquido derramado que antes; ¡Pero no era eso, la vasija entera dónde había estado el líquido, y la piedra bajo ella, eran tan suaves como el cemento fresco! Era como si la piedra se hubiera fundido, como la cera bajo la influencia del calor.”
Texto traducido y adaptado del libro: EXPLORATION FAWCETT, Percy H. Fawcett-Brian Fawcett (The Companion Book Club, London, 1954:317-318).
2.2. Exploración Fawcett II
“Buscamos en toda la Montaña peruana y boliviana un pájaro pequeño, como un martín pescador, que hace su nido en los agujeros redondos ubicados en las paredes rocosas de los acantilados del río. Estos agujeros simplemente pueden verse, pero no son fácilmente accesibles; y aunque parezca extraño, tales huecos sólo se encuentran donde los pájaros están presentes. Yo expresé mi sorpresa una vez, cuando ellos tuvieron bastante suerte en encontrar pájaros anidando en sus agujeros, que ahuecaron tan bien como si hubieran utilizado un taladro.”
“The holes make them ” They were the words of a man who had lived a quarter century in forests-. “I’ve seen them do contando- continued for a long time I have seen the birds enter the precipice leaves some kind of plant in their beaks;. These birds cling to the stone as they do to a tree, while rubbing the leaves in a circular motion above the surface of the rock. Then they flew off and returned with more leaves, and continued with the rubbing process. After three or four repetitions they dropped the leaves and began to kiss the stone with their sharp beaks, and-here’s the part wonderful- birds soon opened a round hole in the stone. Then the bird came out of his hole again, and left the rubbing process several times before proceeding kissing. It took several days but they had finally opened holes deeply enough to contain their nest. I’ve gone and taken a look at them, and believe me, a man could not drill a hole as neatly! “
“Do you mean that the bird’s beak can penetrate solid rock? Does a bird’s beak” Pito “penetrates solid wood, no? … I asked surprised.”
“No, I do not think that the bird can consume solid stone said the man. I think, as all who have seen, I think those birds know a sheet having a juice that can soften the stone until it is as wet clay. “
“I took this as a great story-and then, after hearing similar stories across the country, I found a popularly tradition. However, on one occasion, an English friend of unquestionable reliability told me a story that can shed more light on it:
“My nephew was in the lowlands, in the country of Chuncho in Rio Pyrenee (Perene), north of Peru (Note 6) , and one day his horse was injured, left him with a neighbor’s farm, approximately five miles from its destination, and was walking home. The next day, he resumed the road to regain his horse and took a shortcut through a forest that had never before penetrated. He wore his pants riding worn hiking boots, spurs and large English type-not small, but large Mexican spurs Largo- four inches, and these spurs were almost new. When he came to a farm, after a hot and difficult hike through thick bush, his surprise was huge when he discovered that “something” had “eaten” his beautiful spurs, being these reduced to a black point of just one-eighth of an inch. Given the uncertainty of the boy, the owner of the farm where was happening asked, then, if by chance some plant had stepped a foot tall, with dark reddish leaves. My nephew recalled at once that he had gone through a wide area where the land was densely covered with such a plant. ” That’s him!” – He exclaimed the chacarero-. “That’s what his spurs ate away! That is the material that the Incas used to shape the stones! The juice will soften the rock from the bottom up to be like paste. You should show me where he found the plants.” When they returned to find the place, they could not find it. “It is not easy to retrace the steps in a jungle where there is no path.”
This text was translated and adapted from the book: EXPLORATION Fawcett Percy H. Fawcett-Brian Fawcett (The Companion Book Club, London, 1954: 105-106).
3. Those strange stones …
The Canadian traveler investigator Richard Nisbet (13) , who was a long time in the region of Cusco and Puno, conducted a thorough investigation into this mystery. It haunted by the legend and rugged geography of this region of southern Peru, he began collecting various testimonies about the existence of a technique used by the Incas to soften the stones. His traveling companion, Kurt Bennett, took a series of truly stunning photographs that give rise to amazement and controversy. The pictures of some of them-and their legends, speak for themselves.
7 . A “seat very high “…
Photo: Kurt Bennett .
“Which of these stone carvings that seem to have no purpose, can be of any use? The steps and steps that do not go anywhere, seats where no one can sit. They must be found in astonishing abundance in the area around Cusco. Their sizes are so exact, with outside and inside corners so sharp and thin.
How they were carved?
And equally strange, why they were carved? “
Figure 8 . Huaca ¿? ¿Altar? ¿Temple?
Photo: Kurt Bennett .
“Most of the stories that tell of the Cusco huacas comes from the priest Bernabé Cobo, Jesuit who wrote them many years after the conquest. Each of these places received the support of a family. Each dacha had prescribed the sacrifices to be made on special days. Most of the sacrifices were not human, but Cobo reported that in 32 of these places required human sacrifice, usually children. This is questioned by many who see their statistical rationalization for conquest, it was, after all, an excuse to bring true religion to the natives. “
Figure 9 . Stairs to nowhere.
Photo: Kurt Bennett .
“As they were carved is a mystery. The art is lost, perhaps because its use was lost before the Conquest. Because it is” another matter “. It is no use to find the answer in the rigid and complex religion of the Incas. Most these strange carvings are sacred places called Temples.
There were 333 huacas in and around Cusco (considered sacred places that could be a spring, a rock, a tree or a building. N. VA) . They were located along imaginary lines 40 or “ceques” radiating like a wagon wheel in the Coricancha, the Temple of the Sun in Cusco. “
Figure 10 . Chair “in memoriam”.
Photo: Kurt Bennett .
“Not all of these carvings were part of the official Inca religion. Some were personal, family. If a relative loved to sit in a particular rock while he was alive, his family could carve a seat there as a monument.
That does not make it, “and that” it is more obvious .
In fact, there apparently have an idea how to do more. “
“Two steps with tape near the” bank. “Notice the rounded edges and the overall appearance of aging stone. Some think that the carving was done before the last glacier that” carved “for thousands of years.”
Figure 12 . ¿Lunar Temple?
Photo: Kurt Bennet .
“Not far from Cusco, there is a hill called” the Temple of the Moon “. The hill has several caves and many oscillating sizes. Some of the carvings here show extreme wear and weathering .
Note the horizontal bar near the center of the photograph. For lack of a better word, we call a “bank” .
Figure 13 . monoliths Ollantaytambo.
Photo: Kurt Bennett .
“Ollantaytambo is, but unique, rare in Peru. The giant monoliths that you see here are part of what must have been a sacred or temple place. In an unknown, for reasons unknown time, work was mysteriously stopped in this huge project. “
This text was translated and adapted from: Unusual Andean Stoneworking (13)
4. Colaptes rupicola or Colaptes pitius ?
In our search for information about the mysterious enigma woodpecker we had an apparent confusion of names and definitions regarding the identity of the alleged bird of legend. In order to settle this issue we decided to compare the information obtained from various sources, starting with version Aukanaw (see subchapter 1.2.), Where the author describes the Pitiwe , vulgar name Colaptes pitius . This woodpecker, as we have seen, also nests in Chile with the same scientific name in Argentina. In both countries, this variety of bird gets virtually the same common names with some variations ( P’chiu, Pitiu and Pitiwe in the Mapuche language, and Pitihue and Pythian , in the Spanish language). The uniqueness of it is that, in parallel, another woodpecker, inhabitant of the highlands and eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes and who also lives in Ecuador, part of Bolivia and even in northern Chile, is called Pythian North in Chilean lands while in Peru it is the aforementioned Pito or Pitu .
In Chile, the Pythian North or Carpenter Andino also receives the names of Pitihue, Pitigüe, Pythian and Yacoyaco , while in Peru they call besides Pito or Pitu , Acajllo, Jacajllo, Yactu and Yarakaka -the three last names are from the region of Puno. And when they come to Chile, they happen to have the abovementioned, especially names Pythian North and Pitihue , the latter being one of the most common names also referred Colaptes pitius of Patagonia Argentina.
This often feathery mess, as you can see, arose from the common names that they were either given to the representatives of the two species of woodpeckers in both Argentina and Chile and Peru. For while in Argentina Patagonia to Pitiwe or Colaptes pitius also call Pitihue , the Pythian or Pythian North Chile, or Colaptes rupicola , also it is known as Pitihue . And this Pythian North is both the Pito or Pitu Peru.
4.1. Two birds and a mystery
So which of these birds is the bird of legend? The answer to this mess seems ornithological, right there in the legend. And in the versions of those people who say they have been carrying in its beak strange plant to cup their nests on the rocks and high forest of the Andes and the deep gorges of the Andean rivers that are fanned the Amazon plain noisy.
Both Hiram Bingham and Brian Fawcett bird speak Pito , and this is the name that the locals know the eastern foothills of the Peruvian Andes and the jungle from Cusco to the northernmost area Perene river, and even It is said to have been seen in Puno and Bolivia. Other versions collected by researchers in this mysterious archeology, bird certainly speak Pitu carrying in its beak leaves “Pito grass or Pitu” that softens the stone. Thus, all agree that the Pito as the bird of the secret herb of the Incas.
A secret which also seems to know the Pitiwe , if we believe Aukanaw. Do not forget that the Pitiwe Argentine is also a woodpecker, in fact, a Colaptes pitius a Picidae , so if we are to believe what he says it is, we have every reason to think it has something to do with this incredible story. Likewise, the Pito or Pitu like its Peruvian counterpart, North Pythian or Pitihue Chilean one, is a Colaptes rupicola bird by definition, and also seems to have something in common, and this, even more so by its presence in Peruvian myths. Both species therefore have the same customs, both make their nests on the rocks, and both, as in the plane of legend and controversy, know the secret of the wonderful plant. And although both species, ultimately, are first cousins, the Pito is who seems to have the lead … and the strongest in the legends of the stones softeners.
|Figure 14 . Colaptes rupicola.
Picture of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington) 1999.
Figure 15 . Colaptes pitius.
Image obtained Portal Viarural .
Now what is missing to fully identify the famous plant that softens the stone, and this would have to ask the Pit or … or Pitiwe which unfortunately can not speak. The legend and controversy, then, are still served. Meanwhile, Jotcha good father Lira no signs of life, at least not yet scientific citizenship card … because official science can not see.
4.2. Rara avis …
The number of Supreme Decree 013-99-AG (13a) , enacted by the Peruvian Government on May 19, 1999, was a response to the concern that wildlife in danger of extinction. The curious thing about this legislation is that states like the variety very rare species Colaptes rupicola . No doubt the bird ever had to draw the attention of the authorities to tell them was splashing and pecking between the Andes and misty forests. This curious bird that lives enveloped by the silence of the highlands and ancestral legends do not leave him alone. Like other mysterious birds, small Pito has become the fetish of his own myth. And in a bird of great interest to science as can be seen in the descriptive table following below : (16)
|Figure 16 . Overview of the Andean Flicker .
illustration Agualtiplano Net.
It is a typical woodpecker in the highlands of the Andes. Like all woodpeckers, it presents special adaptations to make holes in search of food, as a specialization in drilling wood and tree trunks through the peak. They have special muscles in the head and neck, they do not bend the neck easily.
|In highland pastures and fields, rocky slopes, in abandoned houses to rest and nest.
||From 2000 – 5000 m in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.
This species does not have scientific synonyms registered.
Carpenter serrano (Spanish)
Andean flicker (English)
Pythian North (Chile, Spanish)
|The male has a bright red crown, the body is generally yellowish, the dorsal part is striped black, the rump and belly are cream until softly lined or heavily mottled black cinnamon. The tail is black. Measures approximately 37 cm.
|It is a daytime and insectivorous bird. Walking hopping in search of food excavating the earth with its long beak, to find larvae of moths or beetles.It breeds in gaps located between rocks and walls of adobe houses usually abandoned. Sometimes it placed in holes dug nest in trees Polylepis. It lays eggs between September and October.
They are cautious but easy to observe. They meet in small groups in pastures for their wedding deployment.
5. The Andean Ephedra , a plant osprey
Aukanaw, in his text devoted to bird enigma Pitiwe and grass which dissolves the iron and stone, reminds us of the existence of a medicinal plant by the Mapuche-considered growing in the Andean highlands, from Ecuador to the Strait of Magellan . Botanists call Ephedra Andean , and one of those suspected of being the famous and much sought after herb of the Incas.
Not surprisingly, by instinct, animals avoid it, because we have seen what happens when ingested: it is known of small mammals such as foxes and guinea pigs who have succumbed to their bloated bodies and debris bones juices from branches and leaves. The Mapuche shamans much appreciated for its medicinal properties and as a ritual item. In Argentina, also known as solupe , Sulupe , Punco Punco , Solder Soldering , Ponytail , Tramontana , Trasmontana , Pico de gallo or Pinko-pinko . In Peru receives almost the same names that have given the Mapuche in Patagonia, along with other native: Q’ero-q’ero , Ponytail , Condorsava , Likchanga , Pachatara , Pfinco-pfinco , Pinco-pinco , Pingo- Pingo , Weld with welding , Weld-welded , Wacua …
It is a shrub densely branched junciformes branches up to 40 cm; sometimes stalk the stands, other bows; whorled branches. Escamiformes leaves in whorls at the nodes. The flowers are whorled, dioecious, inconspicuous: the female little protected by bracts overlapping with globosa seminiferous scale; male with 6 stamens. The seed is arylated, “pseudobaya” which resembles a once dry nucule.
Figure 17 . Ephedra Andean in their natural environment.
Image obtained Portal Hanfmediem.
It is used as forage, some llamas eat their leaves, stems and fruits -suponemos know how to do without the afecte-. Regular palatability for sheep (Tapia and Flores 1984), those who like to eat berries (Vargas 1988). As a medicinal plant is an excellent diuretic and debugger diseases of the bladder, pyorrhea healing, in inflammation of the gums (Soukup). The plants of the genus Ephedra contains alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine 1-3 (1 to 1.57%) which are used therapeutically in the forms of sulfate and ephedrine hydrochloride, as a respiratory stimulant, especially for the treatment of bronchial asthma; also as sudoríficador, antipyretic and sedative cough; Mydriatic action has so used in ophthalmology to dilate the pupil (Aldava and Mostacero, 1988).
|Figure 18 . Descriptive Sketches of the Andean Ephedra. AG. Ephedra Andean Poepp. Ex Meyer; A branch of a female plant (X 1); B. Strobile female (X 50); C. Fruit (X 50); D. Branches of a male plant (X 1); E. Male inflorescence (X 50); F. male Strobile (X 50); G. Male flower (X 50).
Reed Gallery. Digital Library of the University of Chile (Santiago).
Bears fruit in autumn. It grows in places with semi-desert climate. Western slopes and inter-Andean areas, between 1300-4500 m (Weberbauer 1945 ). In Yura, Pampa de Arrieros, Cañahuas Sumbay Vizcachani and down to Chivay, 2600-4300 m . (Note 7)
6. The enigma of Collao
“Oh, come Viracocha, Lord of all the world
big as the sky, the source of all
creative men, ten times salute you.
With eyes on earth I look
like I look for the source when I feel thirsty
all the voice I have I call you…”
Capac Yupanqui. Fifth King Inca
Were really primitive ancient Andean societies erected monuments and buildings of cities like Tiwanaku? The old stone cities of the Andes represent, without doubt, a challenge to science.
What else in the world you can find a city of Tiwanaku bill as impossible? And why in the Andes? And is that the ruins found in the current Bolivian territory, about 20 kilometers south of Lake Titicaca, true Mediterranean sea, once sacred to the Incas, for the Aymara and Colla, the brave people who gave name to this region are not just a pile of rubble. To begin, the altitude at which this city is 4,000 m. above the sea, it is a real torture for those not used to living with less oxygen than normal. Nobody knows exactly when it was built or how. Although archaeologists say it dates from the year 200 BC. C and 600 AD, the truth is that there is enough evidence to believe that their making is much older than you think. The blocks that make up the buildings are huge and some of them weigh hundreds of tons. Found quarries where they come from, and are at distances ranging between 100 and 200 km., However, this does not solve the problem of how and when and why such large transport distances and a place inhospitable, and the mystery remains frozen in time and the coldness of the Altiplano.
|Figure 19 . A door to nowhere, this lytic structure seems to unite this world do not know what else …
Photo obtained Portal Ancient and Lost Civilizations .
Figure 20 . Allegory of the past . Map showing the location of Tiahuanaco south of Lake Titicaca.
Drawing published on the website Ancient and Lost Civilizations .
It is presumed that some of these stones were brought across Lake Titicaca during the season flood waters and where it is still kissed the docks of the city, the same can still be seen, surrounded by earth and stones. Something had to happen for some time in the distant past the lake 20 kilometers north, to the bed where he is now retired. Other of these stones, for the technical difficulties of transportation, had to have come overland. It is theorized that perhaps lubricated wet ramps were built with clay to make up the stones on slopes. It is therefore a technological dilemma is the size of its mystery. Scientists do not agree, and while some argue that if this was not the system used, had to be another sort. It has even ventured forced labor of thousands of slaves who have sweated the fat drop to move those blocks from one place to another. But so little is known of that society that built a huge city at that stage, that just leads to the most amazing speculation.
Figure 21 . The semi-subterranean temple of Tiwanaku. Who would have thought the Spaniards arrive at a deserted city built in the middle of the frigid highlands? His feeling had to be similar to the Incas, who, a century before them, conquered the plateau of Collao. Note at the bottom of the wall image intriguing sculpted gargoyle heads; are dozens of stony faces showing traits of different breeds, some indigenous -nothing unknown that adorn this fabulous temple.
Photo Portal obtained Ancient and Lost Civilizations .
When the Incas arrived in this area in the fifteenth century, this city was already abandoned long ago. The locals did not even know what it was called originally. Legend has it that the Inca Mayta Capac, the conqueror of Collao, sent a Chasqui (messenger) to Cusco to give news of the new conquest. When the man returned a few days later, the president, admired for his physical strength, he exclaimed: “ICTY-wanaco” , composed voice in Quechua means “sit down and rest, guanaco” . . And thus renamed this desert city in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards who came to these places received the same impression: solitude and mystery. Hispanic chroniclers legends recall the Incas told them about the origin of this city. They claimed that Tiwanaku was built by white men with beards, led by the god Tiki Viracocha, a name that later inspired Thor Heyerdahl, who in 1947 named his raft as Kon-Tiki because he was convinced that the same people had to sea westward to found the construction company of statues of Easter Island.
Figures 22 and 23 . The navigator of the mist. E l Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl, without doubt, completely upset our way of perceiving the past thanks to its bold and courageous sea voyages archaeological theories. In the picture below, the legendary Kon Tiki sailed from Callao to its historic journey to Polynesia.
PlayasPerú photos portal.
Around this city they have poured the most deluded assumptions. While Heyerdahl believed that the first settlers used rafts, and did not believe in the possibility of extraterrestrial intervention. Erich von Daniken, however, said that the beings of four fingers (?) Whose features are engraved on some stones of Tiwanaku are portraits of ancestors who came from space. But with all this, the challenge is to show that archeology is conventional explanations are possible. It has been suggested even arrange transportation of a carved block of 100 tonnes for uneven terrain (forests and rivers included) from a distance of 160 km., Something very difficult for our technical capabilities. To this is added the fact, more than likely, that carry similar monoliths, but the system used is discovered, it will not answer to the riddle of the origin of this puzzling stone town.
|Figure 24 . The Kon Tik god i ‘The same Tiki Viracocha – that inspired Thor Heyerdahl its marine adventure. Note beard wearing this character.
Illustration portal PlayasPeru.
6.1. The metropolis of Lost Time
Browse these ruins is faced with an incomprehensible past. In the early twentieth century, the ruins were subjected to systematic pillaging by locals of the area, which caught the attention of Arthur Posnansky (14) , an archaeologist at the University of La Paz, who managed to stop looting and started investigate the past of Tiwanaku. In his book, Tiahuanaco, the cradle of the American man , believed to the last Tiwanaku civilization appeared around 14,000 years before C. and that at some distant time there was a geological phenomenon of horrific proportions fractionated the Andes. Afterwards According to this author, there was a rise in the region of Lake Titicaca about ten thousand years ago after the collapse of vast areas of land (Mu, Atlantis).
It’s a posture that certainly many specialists refuse to accept, but they also find answers to many of the mysteries posed by these stone buildings, for example, the aforementioned presence of faces carved of different races in the mural of the semi-subterranean temple. On the other hand, few explain why, coinciding with the theory launched by Posnansky, found petrified shells and fossils of marine animals molluscs around the plateau of Collao something that is repeated throughout the Andina geography, besides remains of what might have been or marine coastal beaches over 4,000 meters on the plateau of Collao.
|Figures 25 and 26 . The Archaeologist A rthur Posnansky had the merit of saving what was left of Tiwanaku. In the other photo, walls and stone blocks scattered on the ground give an idea of the greatness of this city.
Images portals South American Pic and Crystalink.
But outside of conjecture, it is no secret amazement that cause huge buildings in this city, real traces of an inexplicable technology. Everything here is gigantic, up the stairs. The stones are showing a lithic art unparalleled anywhere else in the world. One of the statues, for example, is a carved block of one piece which is over seven meters high and weighs about 10 tons, while another rock, almost nine tonnes is a monolith of three meters high, It has some disconcerting signs carved on their six sides. There are dozens of statues of impassive look that seem to mock the logic and time … and the most outlandish theories, taking into account that the nearest Tiahuanaco quarry is more than 100 kilometers away, and archaeologists coconut breaking to know how he came there.
Likewise also surprise their -Doors porches where the icy breeze blows the desolate Puna, magical entries where the stars of the night countless paths, like the famous Puerta del Sol, amazing monolith of 3 meters high slip, 4 wide, half a meter thick, carved from a single stone; in this massive structure, door and false windows have been cut with the chisel, and the sculptures of the frieze, which is crowned by the high relief of an unknown character flanked by a series of carved on both sides figures, which some have seen as Writing an unknown or mysterious “Venus calendar” – they are carved into the rock and weighs over 10 tons. Another statue, one-piece, is 8 meters high, one thick and weighs 20 tons. But this is nothing compared to those blocks that resist the logic.
|Figures 27 and 28 . A statue of impenetrab you look. Nobody knows when it ceased to be a column of a large room or if it represents one of those white men of legend, but the truth is that for centuries contemplated the horizon. In the other photo, the Puerta del Sol looks wonderful magical entry into the unknown.
Images obtained from archeology portals Trumpfheller / bo19.htm and Crystalinks.
The chronicler of Portuguese origin, Alcobaza Diego, who visited Tiwanaku shortly after the Spanish Conquest, wrote: “between the buildings of Tiahuanaco lakeshore there is a square of 24 square meters, attached to one side a living 14 meters in length. Both the living and the square are formed in one piece. A true masterpiece carved in the rock … there are many statues of men and women, which are so perfect features that seem alive “ .
6.2. “Rivets” prehispanic
For its part, the Spanish naturalist Marcos Jimenez de la Espada (17) , who was in the Peruvian Altiplano – Bolivia in the late nineteenth century, noted that one of the buildings of the city is one of the wonders of the world. Large blocks of stone 37 feet long by 15 wide, they were united without lime or mortar, with such precision that limits warned barely a glance. Another peculiarity of this city makes the ancient inhabitants of Tihuanaco true geniuses of plumbing and hydraulic engineering. The town had a complicated network of water collection brought and why it was supplied with fresh water from above, and had other channels that are supposed served for watering gardens.
It also found traces of an advanced metallurgy. Blended with pure copper they produced nails and staples to hold the blocks of buildings, what we would call rivets, which has not been seen anywhere in the Andes. Also notable was his skill in polished and burnished metal, lost mold casting, welding and silver, in addition to hammering and embossing. All that was found in Tiahuanaco and preserved in museums, fully test this gigantic city was melting pot of civilizations.
Figure 29 . Plane Tiahuanaco.
Image obtained from Crystalinks portal.
Some researchers have wanted to give cosmic dimensions and Tiahuanaco try to explain the enigma of the stones. This is the case of Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier , missing authors of The Return of the Witches , (Note 8) who cite the American historian A. Hyatt Verrill, who dedicated 30 years of his life to studying the vanished civilizations of Central America and South, who writes: “the highlands of Bolivia and Peru evokes another planet … that is not Earth, Mars is Oxygen pressure is there half the sea level accuracies Recent lean.. thinking men who lived thirty thousand years ago human beings who knew metalworking, which had observatories and had a science that enabled them to carry out works that are almost impossible with the current means;. some of the irrigation works would be to hard barely achievable with our electric drills. And men who did not use the wheel built large paved roads ?.
The old Aymara and Uros Titicaca still remember the white gods came one day to teach civilization and then left with the promise to return. Since then they came to occupy the pantheon of his fantastic stories. For the legends, the gods were white, tall, blond, bearded and blue eyes, and built the oldest city in America and maybe the world.
And when tanning llama herder observed the sky and feel the arrival of wind and rain heralding the end of the dry season, evokes the creator of the Andean dumb, and says … comes Viracocha !
7. Other hypotheses: the Egyptian question
Returning with stones softeners (see Chapter I), Juanjo Perez continues detailing the details of this amazing technique of antiquity, it seems, had global reach. Dr. Joseph Davidovits-a famous researcher who lives in Paris, author of some studies geopliméricos materials, considered among the most revolutionary for the industry since the invention of the plásticos-, together with Marguie Morris, published in 1988 the book The Pyramids: An Enigma Solved (Dorset Press, New York, 1988). This book has become a key to understanding the mystery of the stone softening work in ancient Egypt. “It explains Perez Davidovits exposed numerous examples of constructions made of Egyptian pharaohs softening the stone, shaping it and then returning it to hardening a Once it was placed in its final position. Furthermore, Dr. Davidovits shows microscopic analysis and X-rays inside which stones have been discovered hair, air bags, textiles, etc. “
Hair, air bags, textiles when supposedly blocks of the Great Pyramid are natural. We wonder, in the same way that the author of the note and its caught words: “How is it possible that the stones used to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops human hair are How they came remains of fibers? those tissues into solid rock from the Pharaonic architecture? For the researcher Manuel Delgado the explanation is simple and suggests that the ancient Egyptians knew how to turn the hardest rock in a slurry that could collect debris during handling, materials or clump, as is the case with bread dough or sweet while being manipulated by confectioners.
“Perez continues: The truth is that microscopic debris Davidovits found inside more than 20 rocks of that historical epoch seem to prove the existence of such a technique. But there are many other corroborating evidence, such as artificial clefts certain monuments or plasters added to some buildings, and even pyramids mastabas. Like a potter would correct an error in his work, adding bits of clay on defects and some chunks of rock ’embedded’ in apparent gaps or failures in certain appear necropolis or pharaonic monuments. “
7.1. The god Khnum teaches chemistry
How did they do it? As has happened with other archaeological enigmas of the past, the “secret formula” to soften the stones, the technique “melted” the hardest rocks, according Davidovits and Manuel Delgado, seems to be on the call wake of Famine (15) . This surprising writing is actually a relief formed by over 2,600 hieroglyphs divided into 32 columns, where the formulas dictated by God described Jnum Pharaoh Zosher , who rose to his eternal rest the famous step pyramid of Saqqara.
The inscription, discovered in 1889 by Charles Wilbour in Sehel Island, three kilometers from Aswan, is also known as the Chemical Jnum Trail . “The reason for such unusual name explains Perez is simple: in it, according Davidovits, is the chemical recipe for building a “Sorcerer’s Stone” able to soften the rock. “
|Figure 30 . The mysterious wake of Famine has much to tell investigators.
Image Portal pyramidology.
Figure 31 . strange impression of an object on stone “softened”.
Image Portal pyramidology.
Like Father Jorge Lira in Peru he experimented Davidovits softening of the stone based on the texts of the Famine Stele. He managed to soften limestone, but, like its Peruvian counterpart, struggled to re-solidify the stones evenly.
As noted by the author of the article, such a technique responds to a form of technology -. In this case chemically hardly fits with our knowledge of the past “Now the queen Hatshepsut, the Sphinx is currently held in Memphis, he wrote on the obelisk more Large temple Karnak that ” future generations will wonder about the technique and hoisting of this great monolith “ Looks like the great Egyptian pharaoh more than 3,500 years ago knew them all-. The secret of this technique, applied both buildings inspired by the sovereign as in many other pharaonic monuments is, largely based on the softening of the stone.
Manuel Delgado, a researcher who, along with Egypt and half the world, has also toured much of the Americas, confirms that found evidence of stone softening technique in Mexico, Peru and other countries. The stones softened plateau Nasca Machu-Picchu or the Great Pyramid seem to show that there was an equally or more advanced than our science in the distant past. “Attributing this technology concludes Delgado to an earlier civilization Atlantis, or the presence of aliens, is a matter of opinion. But at this point no one can deny the evidence that our history is not like us have had … “
They initiates the unknown science, softened the stones. The Incas apparently inherited some of that knowledge.
But history has forgotten. The stones are there, the mystery too.
Nobody knows how they did it. No one is able to find the wonderful plant. Nobody can do it, but neither can say, even the bird Pitiwe .
As Aukanaw say, for the curious seeking quantitative and not qualitative things, “… if you want to know more about this herb, and if your ears are ready to hear the voice of the Nuke Mapu (Mother Earth) do not hesitate to ask your guardian, the wise bird Pitiwe, and he knows answer with his usual clarity:
Pitiwe! Pitiwe! “
That is all…
8. Find out more …
About Aukanaw work. http://www.geocities.com/ aukanawel / ruka / chillka / acercade.html
Binational Autonomous Authority of Lake Titicaca. http://www.pnud.bo/ biodiversidadtdps / alt / estudios.html
Endangered birds. Birdlife Peru. http://www.conam.gob.pe/endb/ docs / base / wildlife / avesamenaz.htm # def% 20in% 20PELIGRO
Birds of Peru – List of endangered species. http://www.conam.gob.pe/ ENDB / docs / base / wildlife / aves.htm
Bird of the highlands. http://www.unesco.org.uy/ mab / documentospdf / puna6.pdf
Coricancha or Temple of the Sun. http://www.antropologia.com.ar/ peru / corican2.htm
The rising of the stone. http://www.cbc.org.pe/ rao / dondelapiedra2.htm
The birds of the Ria de Noia – Pito Real . http://www.riadenoia.com/ pito.htm
White man visits the pre-Columbian Americas. http://www.fabiozerpa.com/ ElQuintoHombre / enero02 / Neoantrop_11.htm
Machu Picchu, the story is not known. http://www.unitru.edu.pe/arq/ machu.html
Medicinal plants used by the Mapuche. http://www.plantasmedicinales.org/ ethno / etno8.htm
The Machu Picchu Bingham “found” http://www.caretas.com.pe/ 2001/1680 / articles / machupicchu.phtml
Flora Basin Santiago (Chile) http://mazinger.sisib.uchile.cl/repositorio/lb/ ciencias_quimicas_y_farmaceuticas / navasl01 /
9. Did you know that …
… The variety Colaptes rupicola scientifically identified and named by the French naturalist Alcides D’Orbigny in 1840, who differed from its closest relative, the Colaptes pitius . Significantly he puts the term “rupícola” for its habit of nesting on the rocks. This woodpecker is therefore a rock bird, hence the name.
… “The Ornithological diversity of Peru is the largest known in the world. There are more than 1,700 species reported for the country (O’Neill, 1992) , distributed in 587 genera, 88 families and 20 orders. “
… According to the National Biodiversity Program CONAM (Peru), in this country is home to about 111 endemic bird species considered endangered, of which about 6 does not have distribution in the Andes.
… The woodpecker belongs to the family Picidae the order of Piciformes , of which more than 212 species distributed throughout the world except in Oceania are known.
… Father Jorge Lira the secret was Jotcha to the grave. No one has been identified as strange plant, and many specialists venture speculation, it has even been suspicious of the Andean Ephedra .
10. Epilogue: Two Views
10.1. ¿Prefabricaban the Incas their buildings?
“How the Incas were getting huge stone blocks of different shapes, fit into their cyclopean walls with absolute precision? We try to shed light on this mystery.”
By: Christopher Boada
magazine Enigmas (Barcelona) no. 64
Posted on 01/02/2002
“Each of these walls has been designed and assembled by one person normally -of height and weight, only between one and three weeks without the aid of any modern concrete more than a mechanical element. Also, to move and fit perfectly these huge blocks whose weight, in some cases, the ton-round have been used only a lever and a crowbar. This may seem impossible, it is not, but, yes, is tricky. Perhaps the same as the Inca civilization employed at the time to build, quickly and accurately, lots of walls formed by irregular stones that fit together perfectly, with minimum staff and minimum effort, however, is a system so so simple that everyone can play at home.
Some time ago, in the context of the comprehensive report of lker Jimenez entitled Elizari Last Secret of the Incas (see ENIGMAS year VI, no. 8), Fernando Jiménez del Oso gave us a solution to this problem that has so many headaches caused to the students of this culture in a box entitled The Secret of the Inca walls. According to him, the system used by the Incas to simplify the construction of the walls is “to make the carving and adjustment, not vertically, but horizontally and roll”. This solution, which at first seems so simple but it had never occurred to anyone, and had been exposed earlier by the doctor, in 1988, in the series “Empire of the Sun” on the absolute andinas.ón cultures? We try to shed light on this mystery …
That employ rollers was new to me. But maybe that is the key, because although by other means had also concluded that the Incas “prefabricaban” walls horizontally.
10.1.1. The hypothesis of “soft stone”
First, I left the preconceived idea that the Incas ‘reblandecían’ stones somehow, if not entirely, then at least superficially. The marks like scratches on the soft soap or mass of bread on the face side of many of the stones that make up the imposing fortresses of Sacsayhuaman and Ollantaytambo, induce to think imprecisable some chemical or thermal method, or a combination both, if not made use of even more sophisticated systems.
In Sacsahuamán, for example, I saw a stone that was separated from its immediate neighbor by the passage of time (and probably also by earthquakes) something like the perfect fit extended not only by their outer edges, but in all It gives the depth de¡ wall. In addition, if a side face had a soft bulge in the adjacent soft hollow stone she complemented him perfectly and allowed adjustment to the tenth of a millimeter was observed. This ruled out using a saw or something sharp to produce such separation. The perfect fit between two stones, despite the gentle undulations, only could be achieved quickly if the stones had been previously softened by some unknown method, between the stones, for separation, he had inserted a thin metal foil .
Inevitably, any dent of said metal sheet have been reflected in the stones on both sides. Once they hardened, that sheet would retire leaving a minimum gap of only a few tenths of a millimeter.
However, despite all this evidence, there is no evidence at all that the Incas really enjoyed some method that allowed them to soften the stones. Even so, I started from the premise to make my experiments and, as a modern substitute for that hypothetical “soft rock” of the Incas, I used concrete and mortar ‘Portland’ suitably colored. But even accepting that hypothesis’ soft stone ‘, not good if we do not have more information, particularly with regard to the cut-out shapes of the stones.
10.1.2. The “impossible” boundary stones
In early 1992, I watched the pictures of my first trip to Peru and comparing the construction of the Inca walls with traditional walls Roman style, I realized one thing: the walls in Roman style are initiated by the base and stones superiors conform to the shape left by the lower stones, upwards, until you reach the desired height, where it levels off and flush. However, in the Inca walls it is completely backwards; The wall starts at the desired height and lower stones have to adapt to the way the upper left by stones, downstream, reaching the ground or near it. So to speak, it is as if “the house were to start from the roof.” Over 95% of the stones fit this pattern.
Logically there must be a simple explanation and, after discarding many possibilities, I reached the conclusion that the walls prefabricaban on the ground horizontally. As is obvious, this position can start building from any side you want, and if they did through the top of the wall was certainly a seismic purpose.
Soon I realized that as well, horizontally, face side would be looking at the sky and, with the idea of the ‘soft rock’ in mind, how ‘cushion’ of the stones tend to go out alone spontaneously. Likewise, I also realized that the gaps between the stones are all in a vertical, so that you can easily insert a thin metal sheet as a separation. In addition, you do not bend these metal foils in gimmicky and convoluted play zigzagging to get re-cut designs of Inca stone forms but Bas- ta fold the foil strips in a ‘J’, ‘U’ or ‘V’, in different sizes and models and supplemented with straight sections, to faithfully mimic any copy of the Inca stone style imaginable, including of course that of “12 angles”.
As it can be seen all shapes are very simple, and all plates are reversible and reusable for subsequent tranches of the same wall or other walls.
10.1.3. How the blocks prefabricaban
I spent theory into practice. The aim was to reproduce the buildings looked as closely as possible with the limited means at the same time Inca. As a modern substitute hypothetical gold- perhaps foils used by that culture, I used for my experiments galvanized iron sheet 0.5 mm thick, cut into strips.
Thus, the width of the strip plate (always the same width for the same wall) is subsequently determine the wall thickness; and the length of the plate and the shape of the bending (combined with other plates) that determines the size of each stone and the contour thereof.
Once made the “preliminary design” of the forms of blocks, and taking into account the inclination of the rear wall, and proceed to the assembly of the various strips of iron, previously bent into a desired shape. This is done vertically supporting and / or slightly sinking the lower longitudinal edge of each of them on the ground, and then it is serving the same soil at the bottom of each hole to support or reinforce the plates on either side, avoiding so move when filling concrete (with this operation is also the rear wall also stay with dome shaped stones get).
After filling the holes to the edge of the plates, the way “padding” out effectively without effort, like ridges that appear spontaneously around some stones. And here precisely is where the penalty discoveries “on the fly” begins.
To give a finish with a faux-stone texture, simply fill each “pad” with a thin layer of dry soil and clods of earth itself, to sink on soft concrete, holes perfectly mimic natural stone. After a couple of days, once the concrete has set already, the earth and the clods with a jet of pressurized water is clean.
In this way it can mimic the texture of stone with holes, cracks and seams giving an impressive realism. For example, the vein that crosses diagonally across the large central stone in one of the photos, is nothing more than the union of a day concreted the next day. After a week and you can remove the wall and remove the plates. To eliminate the artificial glow left by the metal plates, perhaps the Incas had no choice but to “rattle” with something very hard all sides of each of the stones, just enough to make them rough but without removing thick.
10.1.4. The construction of the wall
Prepared and all blocks, one can start mounting the wall in place and final location. But this is undoubtedly where the main problem arises: getting fit the wall with the floor. This requires making a coarser base development and not necessarily as polished stones, allowing align and level first row of prefabricated wall blocks. Until today, this detail had been interpreted as the Incas built their walls leveraging existing buildings of earlier cultures. Actually it could be a phase of the wall in their assembly process!
Once aligned and level achieved in the first row of stone blocks, the rest of the wall fits perfectly. No need to try different blocks even once, because for its execution, it is known beforehand that fit tenth of a millimeter. Still, when around a large stone several smaller match the sum of the thicknesses of the interseparaciones can reach produce a lag of 1.5 mm, which is not much, of course, but enough to upset the horn rest of the wall going up. Perhaps the best way to avoid this gap is to make the walls with large stones (the larger, less separations and therefore also less lag). But reading the work of the chroniclers of the era of colonization, we found another possible solution to address this gap: the Incas puntuales–sometimes between the stones apply a thin layer of clay. Apparently this thin would only serve to prevent chafing and improve the aseismic effect of the wall, but could also have the dual function of filling the gap left by the plates apart. This is the way that the Incas had to prefabricate a straight wall, but what ?, curved walls and corners ?, and portals trapezoidal ?, and large stones? If to make a straight wall is necessary prefabricarlo horizontally on a flat floor, apparently to make a curved wall must prefabricarlo on a floor or domed shaped mound. To make a corner just you have to lift the two ends of two sections of a wall to form a 45 degree angle to the ground and fill the gap rounding it (horizontally, rounded a corner also gives out alone and effortlessly). To play a portal, window niche or trapezoidal simple formwork work in two phases is necessary. And finally, the secret of large stones (and here’s the last part of ‘trick’) it is to leave the hollow stone below when prefabricated, which greatly lightens their weight for further manipulation, and once already mounted on the wall in its final position, it Encofra behind and filled. The end result is like the materialization of a metaphor: one person, vulgar and current, without more help than a crowbar and in no time, he is able to make, move, position and fit to the tenth of a millimeter a huge block You can exceed a tonne. If I had had the help of just a couple of people or a crane, this method could have done even twice as large stones and heavy.
As a softening and subsequent solidification of the stone footprints would, I think, in its composition, perhaps the best way out of serious doubts conduct a paleomagnetic analysis to all and every one of the stones of a compact group of 4 or 5 down her face sight. This operation may find out several things: whether the tastings had a paleomagnetic orientation in their different outermost part of its deepest or inner part, it could mean that at some point in the manipulation of the stones they were softened surface in some way; and if the external orientation had in all in the same direction together mean that already at the time of softening. It was also asked if they were hardened in horizontal. Conversely, if the tastings show the same paleomagnetic orientation in all its depth and guidance, in turn, it was uneven among the different stones, the idea of the ‘soft rock’ we should abandon.
But on the other hand, if finally it were shown that the Incas themselves possessed some method to soften the rock, we should consider other questions, such as the transport of the stones that make up the walls. For me this is a big, or mystery, that the construction of the wall itself; because I’m not convinced the traditional official version says that the great stones were brought rolling or dragged from their quarry of origin only on the basis of human endeavor, through the irregular topography of the land, more than 3,000 meters high in many cases, to its final destination in the wall under construction. And then … back again! Thus block after block.
But if we discard this form of transport which other more left? Clearly much remains to be discovered. Someday we will know the whole truth? The enigma remains. “
10.2. Inca stones lose their mystery
“The American architect Jean Pierre Protzen played his entire construction process.”
“An investigation showed that extract, transport, cut and set stones to build large buildings was within the possibilities of the Incas.”
published in the newspaper El Universal of Caracas – Tuesday, February 18, 1997.
“Caracas. One of the questions that has caused more speculation throughout history is how the Incas managed to extract monumental stone blocks, debastarlos and unite so that not a razor fits between them? The answer to this question She found in a Peruvian quarry Protzen Jean Pierre, professor of architecture at the University of California, USA, who recently came to our guest for a doctorate at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the Central University of Venezuela country.
Protzen managed to play on the site throughout the construction process that began in the quarry and ended with the development of the imposing walls. Thus it was proved that everything could be done perfectly with the Inca technology, thanks to a very special debastar stones and make them fit each other, even without iron tools so.
10.2.1. “The madman of the quarry”
The architect explains in fluío learned Spanish in Peru, it all started in 1979 after dictate some courses at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Before returning to the United States, he decided to visit some sites that attracted Latin America, including Machu Picchu. He was impressed with the constructive ability of the Incas, but nobody had a coherent explanation of how they had done these buildings. Among the arguments he found their guides even the intervention of alien forces.
Back in the United States, Protzen found very little information on these buildings. He decided to investigate on their own, he went to Peru in 1982 during his gap year and managed to fund his college project. During the first days in Peru, I had no idea where to start, all I did was watch. Gradually he realized he had to find answers to four key areas: how the stone extracted, how did individual blocks, how fit and how transported.
Very few people of Ollantaytambo, a town where he settled, knew where the quarries were. Contrary to what I expected, not the tradition of removing the rock and carve the Inca way, so that nobody is kept knew the treatment.
He touched then experience long days and carving stones. It was a process of trial and error until he found the right technique, which consisted of stone debastar gradually using another river rock as a hammer. While doing his experiments locals called it ‘the madman of the quarry’. To demonstrate how it should be transporting stone blocks, Protzen all the people involved, which is provided to move a huge stone to where today are the ruins. All parts of the process were reproduced. To try to expose Protzen easily explained: ‘in the stone quarry was worked minimally. From there it was dragged with ropes through the paths made by the Incas to the works themselves. Once at the construction site began to develop the wall by a first row of blocks and leaving the uncut top.
Then cut up the stones so would ‘fit’ perfectly with previous and so on. This is what allows unneeded other elements to attach a stone to another ‘.
10.2.2. Empire record
One of the most puzzling aspects of this whole process has always been the transport of stone. In Ollantaytambo, Protzen found that to mobilize the quarry to the construction stone of the longest (100 tons) 1,800 people who ‘sound like much, but it is not needed, especially when compared with the drawings found in Egyptian tombs and Assyrian temples where similar scenes illustrating transport ‘. To cover this journey, covering about 8 km were used three days.
This reveals something amazing: the empire lasted less than a century and record that time we know the whole development was achieved.
It is worth noting that the Inca culture not reached its peak until about a hundred years before the Spanish conquest in 1532. In less than a century Inca society grew from a small agricultural state from central Peru to become a mighty empire that stretched from Chile to Ecuador. The basis of its cultural flowering was his ambitious building program started by Pachacutec, the ninth Inca, in 1438. Temples, palaces and warehouses tanker began to flourish everywhere.
Although this was not the basis of his research, Protzen explains that it was also clear that the Incas had some kind of mathematical knowledge or at least geometric, but has not figured out what ‘when Ollantaytambo is investigated, one notices that apples are scattered in exactly equal and parallel ‘portions.
He was also impressed the chiaroscuro effect offering the walls under the sun, because it was thought that this was a simple aesthetic idea and is nothing but the result of the technique.
On the Inca culture there were many documents, but with the little knowledge that were impossible to understand. The answers showed some research completed the missing pieces in the puzzle.
10.2.3. Natural Harmony
When asked the architect how you can use this knowledge today he said it is clear that this technique can not be used again. What I think is important in Inca architecture it is its adaptation and utilization of the environment ‘in the Inca aporvecha natural topography. The average was not an obstacle, but used it for their purposes’.
This use of the environment also allowed crops have hardly occur at such high regions such as corn and pepper.
Protzen right now is doing similar research at the ruins of Tiwanaku in Bolivia, seat of a civilization that lived 600 to 700 years before the Inca. It was thought that these had taught the Incas building techniques. But he has discovered that it is a completely different type, especially in the treatment of stone construction and lace. The first results will be published in the coming months. “
( NOTE 1 ) Account Karen Muller, daughter of the remarkable Chilean anthropologist Oreste Plath, his father, in his text, he wrote the name of the Kechuca in his Quechua version Quechuca . Apparently the first definition is Aymara voice. (2)
( NOTE 2 ) Notice how the name of this bird, Jakkacllopito is a sense that ends in the syllable “whistle” . Suspicious sick definition, taking into account that the traditions that are heard among the inhabitants of the Andean highlands is the grass Pito , which is also referred to by this name by Diego de Rosales when he says “this plant, small in size and that grows close to the ground, named after a bird called the Mapuche Pito because eating plant … “ In this regard, Plath matches Rosales father when in his book alludes to this plant called Pito , which names the bird eats … or branches takes to make its nest.
( Note 3 ) Some authors are not so sure that the elusive plant that softens the stone is actually the Andean Ephedra , although the latter also has its peculiar qualities.
( NOTE 4 ) The so-called Eco highlands region is a mountainous geographic area that stretches across the Andes, from the passage of Porculla, the Peruvian north to the south of South America. This eco-friendly “floor” consists of plains and plains scattered among the high mountains, at an average altitude between 3,400 to 4,500 meters above sea level. Its climate is extremely dry, with sharp temperature changes that make a big difference between day and night -can feel a burning sun and then freezing cold in a matter of hours. Geologically it is a Andosólica region, with many volcanoes south and very rocky terrain. Through the highlands many rivers run gently sloping, the result of the melting of the snow. At this point they have been counted about 12,000 lakes and glaciers over 5000m. Puna has a very rich flora distributed in the following areas according to altitude: Central and South: pulviniformes herbs, rosette, bunched grasses (ichu), tuber Distichia , quinuales, stands, SIT. In Jalca (north of 8th South Latitude): pajonal microthermal. For its part, the wildlife is is Andean-Patagonian origin and consists of numerous species, from insects to mammals and birds . (18)
( NOTE 5 ) As confirmation mentioned above, about the strange customs of this woodpecker, also observed countless times by explorers, scientists and ordinary people who claim to have seen the Pito dig their nests in the high forest and rocky walls with help from a strange unknown grass, Jeremy Flanagan, of ProAvesPerú , said in an email that the representative of the family Picidae in Peru is the Andean Flicker , “the Andean Flicker or as they say the Andean Carpenter, making their nests mostly in gaps between the stones and rocks “ . Strange, however, the omission of the name Pito in the list of common names for Colaptes rupicola in the summary table of Agualtiplano Net (see subchapter 4.2.), which does not mean that it is not known by that name, very common in the Peruvian highlands.
( NOTE 6 ) This river (19) , one of the most important in the Peruvian jungle, is formed by the confluence of the Chanchamayo and Paucartambo rivers in Junín. The source of the river Chanchamayo is in the melting of the Cordillera de Huaytapallana, east of Huancayo, in the name of Tulumayo river. On the banks of this river is located the city of La Merced. The Paucartambo River originates on the eastern flank of the Nudo de Pasco, due to the melting of the Cordillera de Huachón in Pasco. The main tributary of the Perene is called upstream Pangoa, Rio Satipo. Before its junction with the Ene, Perene through the wide valley of Alta Selva Chanchamayo, considered the main coffee and fruit center of eastern Peru.
Figure 32 . In this map of tourism in the province of Satipo (Junin) you can see the Perene river basin and its confluence with the river to form Ene Tambo. This is the region from which the book speaks Exploration Fawcett, where It would have been seen the mysterious plant. It is a still unexplored and impenetrable forests that are considered in Peru as a protected ecological area.
( NOTE 7 ) Information obtained from: http://www.chlorischile.cl/Linares/ ephedraceae.htm
( NOTE 8 ) Plaza & Janes Editores. Seventh Edition. 1977
( Note: Right of the hyperlinks inserted last date of opening of that website )
(1) The Ancient Walls . http://home.earthlink.net/ ~ rnisbet / frame8.html (13/05/2003)
(2) softeners stones.
article.php? sid = 1177 (10/05/2003)
(3) Sacsayhuaman, A Photo Gallery ” http://www.geocities.com/ jqjacobs / saxsayhuaman.html (13/05/2003)
(4) Web site of Machu Picchu (Cusco) http://www.machupicchuonline.com/ (13/05/2003)
(5) Map Mapuche state. http://www.geocities.com/aukanawel/ documents / graphics / maps / mapupol1.h tm (13/05/2003)
(6) About the Mapuche: Its History and Social Organization. http://www.uchile.cl/cultura/mapa/ artesamapuche / historia.htm (13/05/2003)
(7) Mapuche Zoology. The Enigma of bird and grass Pitiwe dissolving iron and stone.
documents / Ornito / pitiwe.htm (13/05/2003)
(8) The Secret Science of the Mapuche: Biography Aukanaw. http://www.geocities.com/aukanawel/obras/ cienciasecreta/introduccion/introciencia.html (13/05/2003)
(9) Mapuche Zoology. species and synonymy index numerical order 169 – 287.
auka_mapu / documents /
cataloguskullin / NC / 5.html (13/05/2003)
(10) Website of Oreste Plath. http://www.uchile.cl/cultura/oplath/ (13/05/2003)
(11) Archaeological Museum of Cochabamba (Bolivia) http://www.umss.edu.bo/Sitios/Museo/ rapida_mirada / arqueologia.html (13/05/2003)
(12) Waterstone of the Wild . http://www.spirasolaris.ca/waterstone.html (13/05/2003)
(13) Unusual Andean Stoneworking.
(13a) Supreme Decree No. 013-99-AG on wildlife species in danger of extinction (PDF document) http://www.inrena.gob.pe/ wildlife / ds-013.pdf (13/05/2003)
(14) Tiwanaku: People of the Children of the Sun . http://www.geocities.com/ Area51 / 3184 / tiahua.htm (13/05/2003)
(15) The Famine Stele . http://www.piramidologia.com/ items / 3 / 3.html (13/05/2003)
(16) Colaptes Rupícola.
animals / 57_prin.htm # management (13/05/2003)
(17) Marcos Jiménez de la Espada. http://www.csic.es/cbic/BGH/ sword / biblio.htm (13/05/2003)
(18) Map of Peru – Puna Region. http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/ projects / CPD / sa / map69.htm (16/05/03)
(19) The Perene river. http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/ Vines / 6274 / afluente.htm (29/05/03)
13. List of Images
Fig. 1 . Coricancha or Temple of the Sun. http://www.antropologia.com.ar/ peru / corican2.htm
Fig. 1a . Inca wall in Cusco street. http://www.stijnvandenhoven.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/cyclo-2a1.jpg
Fig. 1b . Sacsayhuaman. http://www.stijnvandenhoven.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/sacsay1m1.jpg
FIG. 2 . Typical Mapuche family in southern Patagonia (late nineteenth century) http://www.geocities.com/aukanawel/ documents / gallery / adentunchillka / image11.htm
Fig. 2a . Mapuche Allegory of a bird Pitiwe.
documents / Ornito / pitiwe.htm 7
Fig. 3 . Father Diego de Rosales. http://icarito.tercera.cl/biografias/ 1600-1810 / bios / rosales.htm
Fig. 4 . The highlands in Puno. http://hot.ee/esi/peruu2.html
Fig. 5 . Map of Peru -. Puna Region http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/ projects / CPD / sa / map69.htm
FIG. 6 . Bookcover of Percy H. Fawcett-Brian Fawcett.
FIG. 7 . A very high “seat” … http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / huacas1.html
Fig. 8 . ¿Huaca? ¿Altar? ¿Temple? http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / huacas3.html
FIG. 9 . Stairs where? http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / huacas2.html
FIG. 10 . Chair “in memoriam” http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / seat.html
Fig. 11a.-11b . “Bank” http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / tmbench.html
FIG. 12 . ¿Lunar Temple? http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / three.html
Fig. 13 . monoliths Ollantaytambo. http://home.earthlink.net/ % 7Ernisbet / otshrin.html
Fig. 14 . Colaptes rupicola.
vert / birds / flicker.jpg
Fig. 15 . Colaptes pitius.
Fig. 16 . Overview of the Colaptes rupicola.
basis / animal / management
Fig. 17 . Andean Ephedra.
hanf / gfx / 0106 / 42a.jpg
Fig. 18 . descriptive sketch of Ephedra Andina.
Fig. 19 . A door to nowhere … http://www.crystalinks.com/ tiahuanaco.html
Fig. 20 . map showing the location of Tiahuanaco south of Lake Titicaca. http://www.crystalinks.com/ tiahuanaco.html
Fig. 21 . The semi-subterranean temple of Tiwanaku. http://www.crystalinks.com/ tiahuanaco.html
Fig. 22 . Tribute to Thor Heyerdahl. http://www.playasperu.com/ articles / Heyerdahl.htm
Fig. 23 . The Kon Tiki Set sail from Callao (| 947) http://www.playasperu.com/ articles / Heyerdahl.htm
Fig. 24 . The Kon Tiki god http://www.playasperu.com/ articles / Heyerdahl.htm
Fig. 25 . Arthur Posnaksky. http://www.south-american-pic.com/ feat4 / atlantis.html
Fig. 26 . walls and large stone blocks scattered on the ground. http://www.crystalinks.com/ preinca2.html
Fig. 27 . A statue of impenetrable gaze. http://home.t-online.de/home/ w.trumpfheller / bo19.htm
Fig. 28 . The famous Puerta del Sol . http://www.crystalinks.com/ preinca2.html
Fig. 29 . Plane Tiahuanaco. http://www.crystalinks.com/ preinca2.html
Fig. 30 . The Famine Stele . http://www.piramidologia.com/ items / 3 / 3.html
Fig. 31 . strange impression of an object on a stone “softened” http://www.piramidologia.com/ items / 3 / 3.html
Fig. 32 . Tourist map of the province of Satipo (Peru) with the location of Peremé river. http://satipo.20m.com/Location.html